Supporting Evidence for the Commercial Devices version of the NtK Model

The supporting evidence listed on this page reflects literature excerpts related to the NtK Model as a whole. More specific information is available for each stage and step by clicking on the magnifying glasses throughout the NtK Model. 

Primary findings

Barriers

Concurrent engineering barrier- compression of development times could lead to overlooking certain activities, leading to mistakes. There is not enough time, because the process is accelerated, to test alternative concepts and the resultant product could be less "manufacturable" than one developed sequentially.
Literature review and case studies
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Technological leadership is very risky. Innovators must have in depth customer communication and understanding. Technology leaders generally find that they must educate potential customers about the uses and applications of a new product.
Survey of 172 electronics products
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Carriers

A shared repertoire (e.g., shared language, stories, resources and standards) can strengthen the bond between researchers and practitioners, and nurture a sustainable project community. In many cases, this can be achieved by helping each party to understand the operating characteristics and project implications of other parties.
Literature review.
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Complementarities (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity) benefits accrue from economies of scope. Economies of scope may help academics/researchers by reducing their costs associate with knowledge transfer activities by becoming more efficient, through jointly coordinating multiple knowledge transfer activities. This can lead to more efficient utilization of resources, sharing them across multiple knowledge transfer activities. It may also occur when they leverage the outputs of one knowledge transfer activity over multiple knowledge transfer activities and/or share their expert knowledge and skills across multiple knowledge transfer activities.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Complementarities (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity) — among patenting activities, spin-off formation, consulting, informal knowledge transfer and publications have been demonstrated to emerge under four conditions: financial conditions linked to private funding, attributes of knowledge assets linked to the degree of novelty of research findings, network assets, and organizational assets linked to the size of research units and the research intensity of universities.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Complimentarities (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity) — typically exist between pairs of knowledge transfer activities, such as, publications and patenting, publications and spin-off creation, publications and consulting, publications and informal knowledge transfer (fostering the flow of knowledge through informal communication processes). Publications, patenting, spin-off creation, consulting and informal knowledge transfer have also been found to exhibit complementarities.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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If research policy makers and university research administrators acknowledge the potential impacts of complementarity (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity), substitution (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity reduces the performance of another activity) and independence (when changes in one knowledge transfer activity do not change the performance of other knowledge transfer activities), they may adjust their funding and evaluation practices to compensate for these occurrences and in doing so, promote the enhancement of academic/researcher performance — thereby strengthening return on investment and overall outcomes.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Invest in coaching, training, consulting and integrating to help inexperienced new product developers overcome technical, procedural and personal barriers.
Survey.
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Knowledge users (stakeholder groups) can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with researchers. Many stakeholder groups lack the time, resources and expertise to conduct the kinds of research projects that are required to generate the evidence they need to engage their stakeholder base. Research projects may be a valuable source of expertise and resources for stakeholder groups.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Research funding agencies should advocate that their mandate include time and resources for nurturing and appreciating the science of knowledge translation across their stakeholder base.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should agree on common terms and operational definition for knowledge translation. This will help peer reviewers of research grant applications to assess against an common standard for knowledge translation.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider establishing a systematic approach to leveraging knowledge translation that cuts across all their programs and services.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider establishing and implementing criteria to guide what research findings they disseminate, how they disseminate them and to whom they disseminate results.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider establishing funders’ alliances or networks. Potential benefits include, pooling resources to leverage change and establishing forums and other venues to enhance interaction, share ideas, successes and failures. This approach could also help to grow an evidence base that is supportive of knowledge translation.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider funding long-term research programs rather than short-term research projects. This approach could enable funders and researchers to dedicate the substantial time required to plan and implement comprehensive knowledge translation activities into their work.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider including in their mandate the capacity to train funded researchers in communication skills that complement the stakeholder base of respective research projects.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider taking on the role of knowledge brokers. Agencies could provide a pivotal linking function between researchers and knowledge users. Brokering functions could include, creating pull by repackaging research results for different audiences, connecting silos, linking partners, identifying appropriate audiences.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider the benefits of tracking research funding decisions, expenditures and results, by topic. This could help researchers and policy makers in better understanding the focus and value of respective funding agencies. Databases are a common tool for harnessing this type of data.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Research funding agencies should consider the role formal evaluation could play in assisting them to openly and objectively assess the impact of their knowledge translation mandate and actions.Selection of the right performance indicators is crucial.
Survey and workshop findings.
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Models

"...if the rules and procedures from past NPD projects are simly applied to future projects that have new innovaiton and market expectations, then this contingency ignorance is likely to lead to NPD system behavior and innovation outcomes that are inappropriate in terms of cost, time and level of novelty."
3 case studies.
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A higher proficiency in marketing and technical activities leads to a higher level of new product success.
Case studies conducted on over 600 new product launches in the U.S. and in China.
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A meta-analysis identified twelve variables with a sizable relationship with NPD project performance. In descending order of importance they are: 1) The degree of organizational interaction; 2) R&D and Marketing interface; 3) General product development proficiency; 4) Product advantage; 5) Financial/business analysis; 6) Technical proficiency; 7) Management skill; 8) Marketing proficiency; 9) Market orientation; 10) Technology synergy; 11) Project manager competency; 12) Launch activities.
A meta-analysis of 47 studies.
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A new product process that guides projects from idea to launch is a well-recognized key to NPD success. By new product process we mean more than just a flow-chart; the term includes all process elements: the Stages and stage activities, the Gates and gate criteria, and the Deliverables that constitute a well-defined new product process.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, integrated with author's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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A revolutionary idea (in terms of either a product concept or a new product design) coupled with quick and efficient execution at all levels of the decision-making process (conception, design, cost and implementation) is a winning combination.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
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After more than 25 years since the Bayh-Dole Act was passed, the proportion of patents from academia is less than two percent of those awarded in the U.S.
Review of university-based patent activity.
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Agencies that support researchers should revise their notions of academic productivity to acknowledge the time commitment required to design and conduct effective community-based research and more community-based forms of deliverables such as volunteerisn, and community publications
Case study
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Any one of the three leading NPD organizations: PDMA; Marketing Science Institute, or the Academy of Management, could and should initiate a large-scale, broad examination of NPD.
Literature review of 815 NPD articles published in the 10 leading marketing, management, NPD and R&D journals from 1989 to 2004.
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Applying knowledge from prior new product development projects will likely result in more successful subsequent new product development projects.
Hypothesis was found to be significant (B =.44, p < .001)
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Best practices in NPD include: 1) Cross-functional development teams; 2) User input tools such as Quality Function Deployment; 3) Early Supplier Involvement; 4) Heavyweight product development teams, all help decrease time and increase effectiveness because they lead to more rapid and effective integration of capabilities within projects.
Conceptual model creation based on literature review.
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Certain individuals use the NPD stage-gate discipline in a strictly linear fashion, chiefly to kill new product ideas (which may be warranted). However, other individuals used the same process to set aside the initial flawed idea, and creatively identified an alternative that was successful.
Experiential. Author observation drawn from over twenty years of conducting, teaching and coaching NPD processes in a Fortune 500 company.
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Chinese firms can be clustered by new product development approaches including: strategic, relational, emergent followers, and sales orientation.
Case studies.
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Chinese firms should use a market driving approach to achieve new product success.
Case Studies.
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Communication web model of product development
Allen, 1971, 1977; Katz & Tushman, 1981; Katz, 1982; Katz & Allen, 1985; Keller, 1988; Ancona & Caldwell, 1991, 1992a, 1992b. Dougherty, 1990, 1992; Dougherty & Corse (in press at the time)
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Conceptual framework for knowledge translation – integrates knowledge transfers node and knowledge transfer process work of previous authors (Cohen, Cooley, Horton, Slaughter & Trott). The framework incorporates the dual meaning of the word translation. It can refer to movement from one place to another place, much the same as the word transfer. It can also refer to putting something into an understandable form. Both meanings are appropriate to the context that knowledge translation is both the movement of knowledge from one place to another, and the altering of that knowledge into an understandable form. The combination of nodes and processes is a follows. The initial node is raw data. The first process is to collect this into information. The second process is collation and summarization of this information into knowledge. Knowledge is the end point of Horton’s phase one. The third process exactly follows Horton’s phase two; the translation and interpretation of knowledge into understanding. Understanding is then assimilated within the organization into wisdom, from which a commitment to positive action can follow. The processes in this integrated framework are the ways of reaching the successive nodes (Cohen, 1990; Cooley, 1987; Horton, 1999; Slaughter, 1995; Trott, 1995).
Conceptual framework for knowledge translation.
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Concurrent Engineering is a philosophy based on the concept of overlapping development activities, which are conducted simulatneously. The goal is to reduce product lead times and product costs.
Literature review and case studies
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Continually integrate customers throughout the entire NPD process to achieve positive new product sales.
Survey. r = 0.256; P = 0.0095
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Critical Success Factors in Organization — Having participative leadership style; high level of information flow and contact between marketing and technical teams; ensure employees have sufficient time to perform creative development activities; ensure top management support for the innovation process.
Survey of 87 manufacturers.
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Customer requirements are equivalent to Quality Characteristics. Quality control in the NPD process is vital to the final quality of a product. Customer requirements are the foundation of quality control. Product development has to be linked with customers through customer demand and quality characteristics. Therefore, Quality Characteristics are key control factors in the whole NPD process.
Articulation of a method and a software tool for managing Quality Characteristics.
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Disciplined problem-solving model of product development
Imai et al, 1985; Takeuchi & Nonaka, 1986; Clark, Chew & Fujimoto, 1987; Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Hayes et al, 1988; Womack et al, 1990; Iansiti, 1992, 1993; Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, (in press at the time)
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Employ heavy-weight/senior product development managers and the use of information technology to obtain positive effects on concurrent engineering. High levels of concurrent engineering will result in higher levels of product innovation and quality.
Survey of 214 manufacturing firms. Senior managers were significantly associated with concurrent engineering, t=6.87, p<.01. As was the use of information technology, t=4.00, p<.01. Concurrent engineering was significantly related to Product Innovation, t=3.91, p<.01 and Quality, t 4.57, p<.01.
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Encourage communication and coordination between internal NPD teams and functional departments to ensure the development and launch of a profitable new product.
Survey. Internal organizational integration is significantly related to new product profits (r= 0.198; P = 0.045)
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Environments should foster information sharing as opposed to a co-operative climate
Meta-analysis. β = -.146, p < .05
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ExxonMobil Chemical has a formal system of NPD with stages and gates, which are close to an industry-standard model. The Stage/Gate process begins with a specific idea that enters the initial screen (start gate). The stages of the process are: preliminary assessment, detailed assessment (lab-scale studies), development (pilot scale studies), validation (in the manufacturing plant), and commercial launch. The gates, or hurdles to be cleared are: initial screen, second screen, decision to develop, entry to validation, and launch decision.
Industry experience.
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Firms are advised to build appropriate new product development resources and expertise. Adequate marketing research, sales force, distribution, advertising, and promotional resources and skills, are required for proficiently conducting market assessment studies, testing and introducing products. Furthermore, technical resources and skills are positively linked with proficiency in conducting technical activities. Sufficient R&D and engineering resources and skills are related to proficiency in performing technical assessments, designing and manufacturing products.
Case studies conducted on over over 600 new product launches in the U.S. and in China.
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Firms which are most likely to to realize high performance from their NDP projects have four key attributes: 1) A strong market orientation; 2) Proficiency in the NPD process; 3) Synergy of resources; 4) Strong inter-functional coordination.
A meta-analysis of 47 studies.
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Focus on driving-market activity rather than market-driven activity to ensure more success (market share, growth, etc).
Case studies.
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Follow a formal and structured NPD process but use improvisation throughout to improve NPD efficiency, speed and product success
Survey. Significant correlations between: (a) speed and success (r=.521); (b) NPD proficiency and speed (R squared = .163); (c) improvisation and speed (increment in R squared= .014); (d) NPD proficiency and success (R squared = .257); improvisation and success (increment in R squared = .011)
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Foster a team approach to product development by including consumer involvement throughout the entire new product development process, including the post launch stages.
Survey.
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Governments should consider incentive to increase new product innovation including tax rebates, grants, venture capital, and incubators.
Case studies.
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Host-Country Culture and Knowledge Interaction in University-Industry Research and Development Collaborations — a conceptual framework that suggests that successful collaboration depends on the critical alignment of six dimensions: cultural orientation (task-oriented or relation-oriented), knowledge type (explicit or tacit), knowledge interaction strategy (exploitation or exploration), knowledge interaction approach (technology and knowledge transfer or knowledge integration or collaborative knowledge creation), capability development (exploiting or augmenting) and research task (basic or applied).
National culture and knowledge co-creation influences in industry-university R&D collaborations.
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If differences do in fact exist between academic and corporate NPD processes, and there are elements of the process that are not currently being performed by academic inventors, then the TTO's may consider ways of providing those elements to increase the quality and quantify of academic patents and technologies.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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Implementation of Just-In-Time principles improves product quality, while reducing development and manufacturing costs and times. Primary principles include elimination of waste and respect for people.
Quality: t=4.16; development time: t=4.97; development competency: t=4.91; development cost: t=5.93; manufacturing cost: t=5.74; P-value for all was <0.05%.
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Improvisation during NPD is a strategy of emergent learning that can be employed as a substitute for planning. However, improvisation is not a free good nor is it effective under all conditions. It must be directed explicitly, its trade-offs and tensions acknowledge and managed, and the conditions in which it is effective must be understood and nurtured by organizations.
Analysis of NPD processes in two firms over a nine-month period.
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Industrial Design is an approach to NPD that transforms a set of product requirements into a configuration of materials, elements and components. This systematic process improves a product's appearance, user friendliness, ease of manufacture, efficient use of materials and functional performance.
Literature review and semi-structured questionnaires completed by manufacturing firms (n = 47).
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Integrated Product Development is an extension of concurrent engineering, with both advocating for the early integration of personnel, resources and processes. A typical product development value cycle includes capturing customer requirements, product design, analysis and testing/simulation, development of manufacturing processes, and supporting information, along with prototyping the product.
Authors experience and as applied within a case study.
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Interactive and systems models are the most useful for innovation because interactive processes recognize the iterative nature of innovation; while the systems models recognize the inter-organizational relationships required to support innovation.
Literature review and case example.
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Internal communication is key to new product development success. Communication can enable marketing to be highly involved throughout the development process, which gives them more influence to ensure customer needs are being met.
Survey data.
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Investment success likely to result from a framework including coherent administrative procedures, sound evaluation methods, and effective control.
Survey with significant findings.
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Keep to organizational rules, policies and procedures to have higher levels of execution success of product development projects.
Survey of 120 development projects from 57 firms. Hierarchical regression was positively significant, beta = .240 at p<=.01.
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Literature review identified the eight most common streams of NPD research: 1) Teams-Integration; 2) External Alliances; 3) NPD Strategy; 4) Development Speed; 5) Radical Products; 6) Ideation & Creativity; 7) Success-Failure Factors; 8) Staged Process.
Literature review of 815 NPD articles published in the 10 leading marketing, management, NPD and R&D journals from 1989 to 2004.
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Maintain project manager responsibility and discretion with development decisions and activites to have higher levels of execution success of product development projects.
Survey of 120 development projects from 57 firms. Hierarchical regression test was positively significant, beta =.192 at p<=.05
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Market orientation has a positive influence on new product development success and is more closely linked to incremental, rather than radical new product development.
Case study using sensory analysis and focus groups to obtain voice of the customer input.
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More sophisticated NPD processes generate more growth in sales revenue from new products. Product development is seen as engine of growth for high-tech companies, as the nexus of research, development, sales and marketing.
Benchmarking study of 288 businesses from seven industries.
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Most medical device companies utilize some sort of NPD process to ensure their devices are developed in a cost effective, controlled and quantifiable environment. Stage-Gate Models divide the process into successive stages such as Concept, Plan, Design, Verification and Release.
Case studies and author experience.
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Most of the factors related to commercial success were found controllable within the company, and decisions can be made related to NPD strategies and practices in order to succeed. For example, NPD project managers can be trained in marketing, technical and management skills; and they can be given enough authority and support by top management.
Survey of 87 manufactures in the U.S. and U.K.
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NPD process maps from academic or corporate inventors were compared for completeness, correctness and overall organization. Three of five corporate maps were ranked highest on all three, and three of the academic maps were ranked lowest on all three.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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NPD risk can be controlled to some extent by Management-direct actions. For example, a company with expertise limitations in technical or marketing areas, can compensate by contracting out to external parties.
Survey of 189 industrial product manufacturers with multi-factor analysis using three-stage least squares analysis.
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Performance Drivers: One is a Systematic Process. Most businesses surveyed follow a Stage/Gate process: A) 74% claim to have such a process with 67% indicating it is well documented and visible; B) 72% have defined stages in their NPD process, complete with activities described within each stage. C) 74% have build decision gates into their NPD process, with 47% having well-defined Go/Kill gate criteria. D) 71% have an explicit menu of deliverables for gates. E) 72% have designated gate keepers who make the Go/Kill decisions. Since most businesses have a systematic process, the key distinction is in how the process and its activities and recommended practices are implemented.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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Proactive product development integrating consumer requirements model strategically segments and directs consumer input into the apparel product development process. This model can be used to determine where various techniques for integrating consumer input into product development will add the most value.
Literature review
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Product development success model
Literature reported by the authors as basis for three specific models they constructed, and which they then used to build this integrated model.
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Quality System Regulations for medical devices require manufacturers to use a standard process for new product research and development. This process follows a series of Stages (phases), each including a set of steps and activities. A standard process imposes quality controls over each element of design, which is expected to generate higher quality devices.
Summary of U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations regarding standard design guidelines for medical device research and development.
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Quality control in NPD is realized through the process of translating customer requirements into product Quality Characteristics, and then decomposing and transforming the Quality Characteristics into sub-QC's, mapping and refining the QC's, and finally embodying the designs into the geometric, technology, materials and assembly characteristics.
Articulation of a method and a software tool for managing Quality Characteristics.
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Rational Plan model of product development
Myers and Marquis, 1969; Rothwell, 1972; Rothwell et al, 1974; Cooper & Kleinschidt, 1987; Maidique & Zirger, 1984, 1985; Zirger & Maidique, 1990.
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Sequential development model involves a stage-gate approach, where one task is completed, evaluated and subsequently passed on to the next stage. In practice, aspects of sequential development are often combined with aspects of concurrent engineering.
Literature review and case studies.
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Share customer information at all times
Meta-analysis. β = .212, p < .05
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Speeding up the new product development process can leave a company without financial results when no attention is payed to the order of implementation of methods. Implementing the different methods in the sequence suggested by the Millson et al. hierarchy should be worthwhile. This will lead not only to a faster NPD process but to a better financial performance at both the product and company level.
There is a strong positive relationship between the hierarchy of implementation of acceleration methods, and product and company level performance.
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Studies on the process of technological innovation have generated three successive models: 1) Linear Models flow uni-directionally from R&D to marketing via production — assuming the market is evident and needs are clear; 2) Chain-Link Model adds detailed information on customer needs and feedback loops — assuming that technology needs can be found via careful marketing analysis; 3) Abduction Model explores customer needs through market experimentation where sample products are interjected into the real marketplace; 4) Creation Model where users and producers interact from the earliest stages, and user values are mapped to create new products for new markets.
Author analysis of prior literature and application within an industrial setting.
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The NPD Model is traditionally divided into phases: 1) Idea Generation; 2) Screening/Evaluation; 3) Concept Development and Testing; 4) Marketing Strategy Development; 5) Business Analysis; 6) Product Development; 7) Market Testing; 8) Commercialization.
Literature review and survey of forty-five manufacturers.
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The NPD process can be summarized as follows: Idea Generation (Stage 1); Idea Screening (Stage 2); Feasibility Analysis (Stage 3-4); Product Design (Stage 5); Testing and Validation (Stage 6); Manufacturing (Stage 7); Commercialization (Stages 8-9).
Literature review, author's experience and case studies.
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The NPD process integrates a set of activity stages ranging from three to more than a dozen. However, the number of stages is irrelevant as the activity described hardly varies between models. All NPD requires idea conceptualization, selection, development, testing and market launch.
Literature review, author's experience and case studies.
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The NPD process is characterized as having three general phases: 1) Pre-Development (research phase); 2) Development (development phase); 3) Commercialization (production phase). The processing of market information is shown to be different in each phase of activity, particularly for radical innovations with higher levels of uncertainly.
Survey of 166 NPD firms.
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The NPD process is conducted in a more complete, more correct and more consistent manner by corporate entrepreneurs, than by academic entrepreneurs. The academic processes fell particularly short in critical areas such as: A) Defining the market and its growth potential; B) Actual vs. planned cost evaluation; C)Determination of changing customer needs/market requirements.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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The NPD's domain of creation includes: Product Planning (evaluation of marketability), Design Planning and Conceptual Design (evaluation of principle and main function). The NPD's domain of execution includes Basic Design (evaluation of function and performance) and Detailed Design (evaluation of product). The NPD's domain of manufacturing includes: Manual Prototyping and Mold Prototyping (verification) and Mass Production.
Case study by internal NPD engineering staff.
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The amount of flexibility applied within the NPD process design, depends on organizational characteristics and level of market competition. The more dynamic and uncertain the market environment, the more formal, centralized and inflexible is the NPD Stage-Gate process. The formal process is seen as a mechanism to reduce uncertainty and achieve timely market response.
Three intensive case studies.
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The analysis revealed a high level of similarity between corporate NPD plans — they had thirty-percent of the possible 131 elements in common, whereas the academic plans had only seven percent in common. The corporate inventors use similar and specific activities that span organizations, but this is not the case for academic inventors. Further, the five corporate inventors used every one of the 131 elements in at least one of their NPD plans, while there were 26 elements that did not appear on any of the academic NPD plans.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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The article divided forms of participation into a six point scale from use of the partner as a reference to joint performance on specific activities. The diagram of this spread shows that the involvement of all outside parties increases from reference to joint performance in a steady line as the project progresses from ideation to testing.
Case study of seventeen medical equipment innovations marketed by 13 Dutch firms.
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The authors identified 133 process elements (steps/activities) from the literature, pilot testing and actual interviews with inventors. The list shown in Table 1 can be used to ensure that any NPD models account for all these 133 steps/activities.
Literature review, pilot testing of lists and eleven structured interviews with corporate and academic inventors.
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The emphasis on investigator-initiated discovery and viewing knowledge independent of its potential application has been described as Mode I science. Mode II science emphasizes problem-focused knowledge creation, where discoveries are made in the service of a larger initiative to provide solutions to social problems or create innovative products, often in collaboration with a cross-section of investigative teams.
Literature review
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The full integration of customers in the Stage-Gate NPD process is justified based on Resource Dependence Theory. That is, information on customer needs and user experiences can be viewed as resources companies depend upon for successful NPD, and continued operation and survival. Customer-related information is highly important for continued operation, customers have discretion over the resources, and customer-related information can only be obtained from the customers themselves.
Field interviews and 310 survey responses from R&D managers.
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The higher the level of unpredictability of customer requirements and competitor strategies in high-tech industries, requires: 1) Use of a step-wise NPD process; 2) Establishment of a stable if not exhaustive Business Case; 3) Full integration of customers; 4) Higher specialization of teams rather than cross-functional integration.
Three intensive case studies.
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The literature base does not agree on the key success factors underlying NPD. The differences may be accounted for by three contingencies that any NPD project should consider in its planning process: 1) Nature of the Innovation — being either an incremental change to an existing product or a radical departure from existing products/technologies; 2) Nature of the Market — being either familiar with low market uncertainty or unfamiliar with high market uncertainty. 3) Nature of the Technology — being either low tech, mature and stable, or high tech with a rapidly changing base. Each combination of conditions results in a different set of critical success factors to be considered.
Literature review (n = 60) and ensuing analysis.
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The product development process includes all the stages associated with moving a product from idea to launch. This includes two distinct yet related types of development activity: 1) Concept and Production Engineering — primarily concerned with the design of the product's features and functions. 2) Manufacturing Engineering — primarily concerned with the plan for producing the material product, particularly concerning the software involved.
Authors experience and as applied within a case study.
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The whole NPD process must begin and end with the customer. At each stage of the process, the customer requirements are re-interpreted into desirable design outcomes related to the specific tasks at hand. To be absolutely confident that the design outcomes at any particular stage still coincide with the customer's requirements, it is necessary to involved the customer in a verification role throughout the NPD process.
Case studies in industry.
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There were four fundamental differences between a set of NPD processes outlined by corporate versus academic inventors: 1) Overall organization of the NPD process, particularly in the early stages, such as having one, three and five year production plans found in corporate but not in academic plans. 2) The level of integration between the varies elements, such as maps with feedback loops and links between technological and strategic issues, found in corporate but absent in academic plans. 3) Process plans that had a strong core structure with several surrounding areas were from the corporate side. 4) Plans that indicated patent filing near the beginning of the process came from academics, while those that showed substantial work before mentioning patents came from corporate inventors.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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Use strategic actions to increase new product success by driving a market with innovation, but limiting entrepreneurial activities with pre-determined plans.
Case studies.
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Various types of R&D processes have been defined according to industry or product characteristics, but almost all of them feature Stage-Gate systems. It is our contention that even fourth generation R&D Models should progress according to predefined procedures to accomplish productivity and consistency of innovation.
Author analysis of prior literature and application within an industrial setting.
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When operating at a high level of cellular manufacturing, establish strong capabilities in introducing new products to ensure quality.
Survey of 214 manufacturers. The effects of product innovation on quality were found to be dependent on the level of cellular manufacturing, x2 = 7.21, p<.05
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When operating at a low level of cellular manufacturing, use concurrent engineering to obtain quality.
Survey of 214 manufacturing firms. The relationship between concurrent engineering and quality was different for high cellular versus low cellular manufacturing firms, x2 = 4.18, p<.05
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Methods

Accommodate good senior management support; encourage use of subtle control (for both speed and product concept effectiveness , leading to financial success)
Authors report significant and robust link [link 6] in the integrated model, between this method and product effectiveness and thereby to financial success. Actual results not reported.
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Compose an efficient project team; make sure that it is cross functional, includes gatekeepers, and its members have moderate tenure, i.e., have neither a too short nor too long a history together. This is to ensure increased information sharing and flow both internally and externally.
Authors report significant and robust link [link 1] between this method and product development speed in the integrated model. Actual results not reported. Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Dougherty, 1992; Zirger & Maidique, 1990; Allen, 1971, 1977.
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In order to determine if concurrent engineering is appropriate for a product, evaluate the project on two dimensions: complexity of the internal product structure (CIPS) and complexity of the product user interface (CPUI). CIPS and CPUI are further divided into high and low categories, establishing four quadrants. Items that are low in both CIPS and CPUI will not benefit much from concurrent engineering. High CIPS and low CPUI reveals a need for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture and failure mode and effect analysis. Low CIPS and High CPUI suggests a need for voice of the customer techniques and quality function deployment methods. The most complext products, those that are high in both dimensions will benefit from the application of formal methods like Taguchi, quality function deployment, and failure mode and effect analysis.
Literature review and case studies
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Quality function deployment is a method for structured product planning and development that enables a development team to specify clearly the customer's wants and needs, and then to evaluate each proposaed product or service capability systematically in terms of its impact on meeting those needs. Four matrices are typically used including the house of quality, subsystem design matrix, piece part design matrix, and process design matrix. As an example, the "House of quality" exhibits voice of the customer/ customer requirements against technical characteristics that will satisfy those requirements.
Literature review and case studies.
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The role of senior management is to deal with strategic fit and priority, and to enable success by providing resources and guidance. Management decisions should concentrate on specifying product and process performance goals. However, the choice of technologies used to satisfy these goals in design and manufacturing should be done jointly with the NPD team.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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To drive a market, (Chinese firms should) look to new markets and identify new resources that can drive innovation.
Case studies.
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Measures

Environmental scanning can help to inform potential new products, as well as an organization's current offerings. However, the information must be communicated to various functional units within an organization.
Literature Review
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Intertemporal integration five item scale was developed to measure a company's success at applying and benefiting from knowledge gained during prior new product development projects.
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Process Quality Assessment Instrument and Output Quality Assessment Instrument can be used to target specific areas for improvement in the process used to apply the design tool (e.g., involving stakeholders, adhering to the prescribed process, etc.) and the quality of the outputs of the design tool.
Single subject case study
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Tips

Complementarities (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity) — draw into question the validity of “best practices” which postulate performance enhancement that is independent of the context of their use.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Complimentarities (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity increases the returns to doing more of another knowledge transfer activity) demonstrate to the complexities of knowledge transfer, where interdependent and mutually reinforcing activities can lead to the enhancement of knowledge transfer performance of academics/researchers. Complimentarities may trigger a virtuous cycle in which publications produce knowledge, expertise and skills that are redeployed into informal knowledge transfer activities, thereby augmenting the knowledge base that academics have about knowledge users in firms and other organizations, which, in turn, enhances the ability of academics to get involved successfully in commercial knowledge transfer activities such as patenting, spin-off creation and consulting. In turn, formal commercial knowledge transfer activities give rise to a mutual informal exchange of knowledge between academics and knowledge users that increases the knowledge base, expertise and skills that enhance the ability of academics to become more successful in publishing and informal knowledge transfer. It may be that virtuous circle emerge only when multiple forms of knowledge transfer activities occur simultaneously because it requires the exchange of codified and non-codified knowledge between academics and knowledge users
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Cross-functional teams should be given opportunities to work on projects outside of the traditionally high-pressure new product development projects. Doing so gives the team a chance to develop relationships and learn to work out their problems without the added pressure of new product development deadlines.
Interviews with four high-tech firms.
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Develop well organized databases for more effective retrieval and review. Databases should include design specifications, engineering change orders, test data, market research findings and pertinent comments related to the project.
Survey.
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Each business unit should have a defined new product strategy to enhance their new product success. The strategy should outline goals and objectives for the entire business's new product effort, while also identifying each business unit's role in that effort. The strategy should include specific goals and have a long term focus.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Efforts should focus on the design aspects of the new product development process, since such highly statistically significant findings were consistently found between new product success levels and the amount of joint effort existing between marketing and R&D in determining the final design of new products.
Survey of 252 large manufacturers
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Efforts to integrate marketing and R&D need to be selective rather than global and R&D's contributions to the success of new products cannot be ignored as these integration strategies are instituted and implemented.
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Encourage commitment from functional team members to maintain involvement throughout the new product development project and conditions for collective learning will be favorable.
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Exploit current firm capabilities to obtain operational effectiveness with new product development systems.
Survey.
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Firms indicating a high level of joint effort between R&D and marketing have introduced new product considered to have "higher success" levels, compared with companies where a low level of joint marketing/R&D effort occured.
Survey of 252 large manufacturers
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Formality in research and development projects is beneficial regardless of the project-inherent uncertainty.
Survey of 475 reserach and development projects
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If funding organizations want knowledge translation to be taken seriously, researcher reward systems should be changed to reflect the importance of knowledge translation. Current reward systems are more commonly based upon traditional metrics like frequency of peer-reviewed publication. One approach funding organizations can take to encourage alternate metrics and rewards is to advocate for, train for, and fund, a range of specific knowledge translation activities.
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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In terms of total stages performed for new-to-the-world products versus product modifications, results show a striking contrast: 49% of new-to-the-world products completed 11 or 12 NPD stages, while only 24% of product modifications did so. Not only did new-to-the-world products undertake more NPD stages in total than product modifications, but more successful new products utilize more stages than less successful new products (P < .Ol).
Researchers survey finding.
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Independence (when changes in one knowledge transfer activity do not change the performance of other knowledge transfer activities) — may be present between teaching and patenting, spin-off creation, consulting and informal knowledge transfer.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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It is helpful to think about research and practice as dynamic, contextual and active processes that interact — not sequential activities, where research takes place and then practice is modified. A common analogy for the sequential view portrays research and practice as separate islands, requiring a bridge to connect them. Instead of focusing on the bridge-building, the dynamic view depicts research and practice as being part of the same island — and focuses on community-building. In the dynamic view, there are greater opportunities for interaction between research (researchers) and practice (practitioners). Enhanced interaction often leads to the establishment of more focused and contextually-relevant projects. The dynamic view draws upon the theory and principles of communities of practice. The key elements of a community of practice — mutual engagement, joint enterprise and a shared repertoire  — echo the key attributes of knowledge translation.
Literature review.
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Management commitment is essential to product success. Without it, needed resources may not be approved.
Survey of 172 electronics products
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One way to look at academic/researcher knowledge transfer activities is to group them into portfolios. Representative portfolios might include: 1) complementary activities which are interdependent and reinforce each other — publications, patenting, spin-off creation, consulting and informal knowledge transfer 2) substitutive activities which imply a choice of one over the other — teaching or publishing 3) independent activities which do not seem to impact each other — a teaching, patenting, spin-off creation, consulting and informal knowledge transfer.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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Positive innovative climate and culture have some impact on new product success. To achieve such a climate, the business unit's new product plans should include input from all employees, technical people should be given free time to work on non-project ideas, and resources should be made available for creative ventures.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Project success factors for mode 2 knowledge production include the following: driven by a well-articulated clinical need; broad stakeholder involvement (especially the proposed users and professionals impacted by the innovation) and open communication channels, formal (e.g., newsletters) and informal (e.g., freely-available contact information); one or more project members that demonstrate the ability to translate knowledge from one state to another; stakeholder involvement in incremental improvements, derived from experimenting and prototyping; and early involvement of stakeholders.
Literature review and case example.
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Research and development related knowledge interaction (defined as mutual and two-way exchange of knowledge) between industry and university can demonstrate significant mutual benefit when there is strong alignment between project-related knowledge type (explicit versus tacit), capability development practices (exploiting versus augmenting) and research task (basic versus applied).
National culture and knowledge co-creation influences in industry-university R&D collaborations.
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Research funding agencies should go beyond simply asking researchers to describe generally how finding from their research will be disseminated. At a minimum, agencies should encourage researchers to identify precisely how they will incorporate relevant elements of existing theory — or evidence-informed dissemination approaches. Over time, greater availability of this kind of dissemination usage data will enhance agency and researcher ability to critically evaluate dissemination efficacy.
Literature review.
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Researchers and knowledge users (stakeholder groups) can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships. Together, they can build an open and safe forum to share research activities and provide mutual support in drafting evidence-based funding proposals, assisting with policy development and staff education, and participation in educational and networking activities.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers may be more adept at knowledge translation if their funding sources and organizational affiliations dedicate time and resources to advancing the practice of knowledge translation.
Project evaluation findings.
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Researchers may be more receptive to collaborative research if the reward structures of their funding sources and organizational affiliations are structured to support collaborative research.
Project evaluation findings.
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Selected customers should be actively involved in the product development process on multiple occassions — early when the product is being defined, and again during the prototype development and testing activities.
Literature review and experience
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Senior management accountability has a stronger effect on profitability than overall performance. To achieve accountability new product performance must be measured and evaluated against annual performance measures. To further encourage high quality performance, organizations may tie compensation to annual performance objectives.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Senior management commitment is an essential component of successful new product efforts. It should involve a strong commitments to developing new products, funding those efforts with the necessary resources. Senior management should also be closely involved in go/kill and spending decisions.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Substitutions (when doing more of one knowledge transfer activity reduces the performance of another activity) — may be implicated between teaching and publishing.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
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The analyses show the importance of constant monitoring of project progress and the development of contingency plans to recognize changes as soon as possible and act upon changing conditions.
Survey of 475 research and development projects
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The following factors related to market orientation have been observed: the process begins with identification of customer needs; customer knowledge drives innovation; customers should be integrated into the new product development process; cross functional teams provide diverse viewpoints — should have a minimum of two employees from marketing and technical; top management must commit to investing in collecting and using market information for R&D.
Best practices observed at innovative companies
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The following factors related to organization for collaboration and communication have been observed in best practice companies: make use of cross-functional teams in new product development; information is widely disseminated throughout an organization; internal champions can lead projects to success; provide the space and an environment for employees to meet and share ideas informally.
Best practices observed at innovative companies
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The following factors related to slack resources and stimulus have been observed in best practice companies: new product development projects are adequately resourced and funded; the idea database and other resources are shared; managers are transferred across departments; business integrators or advisers travel from one branch to another to exchange ideas and diffuse best practices; all employees have access to and share knowledge, information, and technology resources.
Best practices observed at innovative companies
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The following factors related to strategic fit and Shared Vision have been observed in best practice companies: Innovation is a strategic objective; vision is shared by all employees; product development initiatives must be linked with corporate strategy; must have innovation performance objectives; must also integrate market knowledge with technical competencies; customer focus internalized by all employees; leverage resources; sell the new challenge and vision to every employee; make everyone an active participant in the innovation journey; and clear cut metrics, objectives and strategy.
Best practices observed at innovative companies
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The four most important correlates of new product development success are: relative product advantage; a market-derived product idea; proficiencies of development activities; and market size and potential. Two factors highly correlated with failure are: newness of hte production process to the firm; and compeitive intensity.
Survey of 129 firms.
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There are a variety of key roles in organizations generating innovations that require individual levels of support and monitoring. For example, there may be idea generators; entrepreneurs or product champions, program managers or leaders, gatekeepers or special communicators, and sponsors or coaches. Although these groups of employees will function as a cohesive unit, each type of employee may need differing forms of training, rewards, and performance measurement.
Literature review and experience
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These data imply that there is apparently some threshold level of involvement required for marketing in the procedure, but to increase marketing's contributions beyond that point may have only minimum impact on the success levels of new offerings and may not justify the additional commitment of resources.
Survey of 252 manufacturers
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They key to improving new product success levels from manipulation of hte process for developing new products seems to lie with additional nitty-gritty aspects of actually shaping hte product physically, rather than with the up-front aspects of collecting and using input from the market or the end-of-the process evaluatoin of hte product.
Survey of 252 large manufacturers
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This study's results suggest that having marketing exert high levels of involvement in the product development process is more likely to result in higher levels of commercial success for new consumer products than for new industrial products.
Survey of 252 large manufacturers
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To stimulate academic responsibility for, and involvement in commercially-oriented knowledge/technology transfer, universities may need to adjust their incentive and reward systems in ways that enable identifying, tracking and evaluating commercially-oriented knowledge/technology transfer activities. New and complimentary practices and tools (and associate training) would need to be made available to academics.
Literature review.
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Too little as well as too much new product development speed has a negative effect on product quality.
Survey of 155 companies in German industrial goods industry.
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Universities (and their involvement in generating, co-producing and transferring knowledge) play an important role in a country’s ability to maintain strong innovation capacity.
Literature review.
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Using an integrated KT approach (which leverages the involvement of key stakeholders from research inception to completion) enhances the potential for broadening penetration and widening acceptance of research-based results and strengthening the uptake and implementation of the research-based evidence, practices and services. Also encourage the commitment of sustainable funding.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Utilize pattern recognition/data mining techniques to uncover trends and develop long-term strategies.
Literature Review
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Value products using a portfolio approach, considering a set of related products. Can be helpful for planning the sequential launch of new products, valuing products, and developing positioning strategies.
Literature Review
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When marketing and R&D demonstrate high levels of joint effort in determining the final design of new products, new consumer and industrial products are each more likely to have higher levels of success than when low levels of cooperation occur.
Survey of 252 large manufacturers
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Secondary findings

Barriers

External environmental factors that are not controllable by management  — market dynamism, market hostility, market complexity
Source: Miller and Friesen 1982. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Limited time and resources of practioners, insufficient training, lack of incentives for using evidenced based practice, and poor support of research translation within organizational systems all inhibit the practical use of research findings.
Source: Green (2001). In: Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003)

Novelty of research (significant changes in materials or production techniques) can have a negative and significant impact on informal knowledge transfer (fostering the flow of knowledge through informal communication processes) — by increasing the distance between finalizing research results and their application.
Source: Landry (2007a). In: Landry, R., Saïhi, M., Amara, N. & Ouimet, M. (2010)

The implicit barrier between the functional groups (marketing, R&D, and manufacturing) is represented in the model by physical separations between the entities. Without conscious efforts by the organization to bridge these gaps, information critical to the product's form and function are likely to be lost, particularly as the organization grows in complexity and diversity.
Source: Rubenstein et al, 1976; Souder & Chakrabarti, 1978; Souder, 1981; Gupta, 1985. In: Zirger, B.J., & Maidique, M.A. (1990)

Carriers

A review of recent publications indicates that companies are using new information and communication technologies in their NPD processes to accelerate NPD, increase productivity, facilitate collaboration and coordination of NPD teams, provide versatility, create and share new product knoweldge, improve new product decisions, and help generate superior products.
Source: Ozer, 2004. In: Buyukozkan, G, A. Byakasoglu, T. Dereli (2007)

Consider adopting ambidextrous organizational forms and semi-or quasi structures to overcome the problems associated with dynamic capabilities which speed exploitation and efficiency.
Source: Brown & Eisenhardt (1995), O'Reilly & Tushman (2004), Schoonhoven & Jellinek (1990), Van Looy et al. (2005). In: de Weerd-Nederhof, P. C., Visscher, K., Altena, J., & Fisscher, O. A. M. (2008)

It is helpful to consider a research project as a journey, not a final destination, characterized by a cycle of thinking, planning, doing and reviewing that leads to more thinking, which is, in effect, a form of participatory or action based research.
Source: Alde (2009). In: Cheek, J., Corlis, M. & Radoslovich, H. (2009)

Patenting and spin-off creation are also strongly influenced by the funding structure of knowledge transfer activities.
Source: Azagra-Caro (2006); Baldini (2007); Breschi (2008); Krabel (2009); Landry (2007b); O’Shea (2005). In: Landry, R., Saïhi, M., Amara, N. & Ouimet, M. (2010)

The publication record of academics is strongly influenced by their funding structure.
Source: Gaughan (2002); Landry (2006, 2007a); Lee (2005). In: Landry, R., Saïhi, M., Amara, N. & Ouimet, M. (2010)

Timely incorporation of knowledge into practice is beneficial for client outcomes and responsible clinical practice.
Source: Wyer (2007). In: Metzler, M. J. & Metz, G. A. (2010)

Models

13 step sequence for NPD: Initial screening, preliminary market assessment, preliminary technical assessment, detailed market study/market research, business/financial analysis, product development, in house product testing, customer product tests, test market/ local sell, trial production, pre-commercialization business analysis, product start-up and market launch
Source: Cooper and Kleinschmidt, 1986. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

A 2004 R&D Model divided the process into six Development Stages and six corresponding Evaluation Gates: 1) Idea Generation & Idea Screening; 2) Concept Development & Concept Testing; 3) Building Business Case & Business Analysis; 4) Product Development & Product Testing; 5) Market Testing & Analyzing Test Market Results; 6) Market Launch & Post-Launch Evaluation.
Source: Tzokas, Hultink & Hart (2004). In: Kim, S, Park, Y. & Seol, H. (2007)

A clearly defined new product strategy leads to new product success.
Source: Cooper & Kleinschmidt, 1996; Griffin, 1997. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

A detailed description of the model in terms of problem definition, process of model conceptualisation, model formulation; model building and model validation, with a special emphasis on modelling of the stochastic parameters, operational and implementation is available with the researchers (Gupta, 2004).
Source: In: Gupta, A., Pawar, K.S., & Smart, P. (2007)

A firm's ability to successfully develop and commercialize technological innovations is related to how it comes to understand customer needs.
Source: Slater & Mohr (2006). In: Golish, B.L., Besterfield-Sacre, M.E. & Schuman, L.J. (2008)

A generic Product Development process was presented in 1995, consisting of five stages: 1) Concept Development; 2) System-level Design; 3) Detail Design; 4) Testing & Refinement; 5) Production Ramp-up.
Source: Ulrich & Eppinger (1995). In: Kim, S, Park, Y. & Seol, H. (2007)

A horizontal management style reduces the time needed to develop new products by giving more decision making power to lower level managers and improving efficiencies of indirect development activities.
Source: Rothwell, 1992. In: Bourgeon, L. (1989)

A strategic approach to business to business relationships helps improve new product success for U.S. firms.
Source: Zirger & Maidique, 1990. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Another New Product Development (NPD) process articulated in 1996 comprised five stages: 1) Concept Evaluation; 2) Planning & Specification; 3) Development; 4) Test and Evaluation; 5) Product Release.
Source: McGrath, M. (1996). In: Kim, S, Park, Y. & Seol, H. (2007)

Bi-directional knowledge interactions, those based upon continuing relationships, are judged by academic and industrial scientists alike to be more important than unidirectional knowledge transfers. This is important for the KTA activities.
Source: Meyer-Krahmer and Schmoch (1998). In: Perkman, Markus & Walsh, Kathryn (2007)

Consider adopting a decentralised or flat organizational structure, as it allows for easier communication and exchange of information.
Source: Burns & Stalker, 1961. In: Frishammar, J. & Ylinenpaa, H. (2007)

Existing knowledge translation frameworks typically take one of three forms: a linear progression with an identifiable start and end point (e.g. from problem identification to knowledge use); a cyclical process involving a linear progression that is repeated rather than reaching an endpoint; a dynamic, interactive and multidirectional process where elements of the process can occur simultaneously or in different sequences.
Source: Ward (2009a). In: Ward, V., Smith, S., Foy, R., House, A. & Hamer, S. (2010)

Important differences exist between academic and corporate inventors, particularly with respect to the management of technology-based NPD.
Source: Scott (2000). In: Golish, B.L., Besterfield-Sacre, M.E. & Schuman, L.J. (2008)

In a stage-gate model, required tasks, their sequences and taskforces are specified explicitly.
Source: Griffin (1997). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

In their article on major approaches for accelerating NPD, Million et al. distinguish five clusters of these methods. The clusters are: simplify, eliminate steps, parallel processing, eliminate delays, and speed-up. Millson et al. propose that the implementation of these clusters of acceleration methods should be done in the order presented, and that management should implement all clusters.
Source: Millson, M. R., Raj, S. P. and Wilemon, D. (1992). In: Nijssen, E.J., Arbouw, A.R.L., & Commandeur, H.R. (2003)

Integrated Product Development — may be viewed as a series of linked, critical business processes or value cycles: 1) Business Development Cycle assesses the market, competition and customers, to determine what products might satisfy identified needs. 2) Product Development Cycle converts customer requirements into a stable collection of information necessary to generate the envisioned product. 3) Production Cycle uses the prior information to manufacture the components and assemble the final product. 4) Order Cycle starts with a product inquiry from a customer, which is then scheduled for production, distribution and delivery. 5) Supply Chain cycle depends on the integration of the production and order cycles across the entire extended manufacturing enterprise.
Source: Conaway (1995). In: Mulebeke, J.A.W., & Li, Z. (2006)

Integrated Product Development is a response to the uncertainty surrounding the fuzzy front end of New Product Development. It connects actors and practices, creates a shared vision, facilitates information acquisition, clarifies perceptual interpretations, involves constituents and collaborators early, creates concurrent workflow, and integrates the application of information technologies.
Source: Gupta, A, Raj, S and Wilemon, D (1986). In: Mulebeke, J.A.W., & Li, Z. (2006)

NPD can be grounded in Resource Dependence Theory, which proposes that a firm's survival is contingent on its ability to gain control over environmental resources (e.g., funding, personnel, information, products and services). Dependence involves three factors: 1) Extent to which the firm requires the resource for continued operation and survival; 2) Extent to which an external stakeholder has discretion over resource allocation and use; 3) Extent to which there are few alternatives available to the firm.
Source: Pfeffer & Salancik (1978). In: Gruner, K.E., & Homburg, C. (2000)

NPD processes involve a series of stages aimed at delivering a functional commercial benefit to customers.
Source: Calantone et al (1995). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

Only thirty-seven percent of U.S. academic institutions meeting the top three levels of the Carnegie Classification have established Technology Transfer Offices (TTO's).
Source: AUTM (2004). In: Golish, B.L., Besterfield-Sacre, M.E. & Schuman, L.J. (2008)

Proficiency in executing NPD processes is important because it determines the degree to which businesses can meet and/or exceed demand, and thus succeed.
Source: Kleinschmidt & Cooper (1991). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

Pros and cons of distributed verses concentrated organizational structure.
Source: Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989; Ghoshal & Nohria, 1993; Porter, 1986. In: Datar, S., Jordan, C.C., Kekre, S., Rajiv, S. & Srinivasan, K. (1997)

Reactive learning styles can result in low quality market-oriented outcomes.
Source: Baker & Sinkula, 1999. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Sequence of NPD steps: New product strategy development, new product idea exploration, screening, business analysis, development, testing and commercialization
Source: Booz et al 1968, 1982. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Simultaneous engineering process: Brings cross-functional teams into the process early on, such that stakeholders work to design the product and manufacturing process simultaneously.
Source: Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Ettlie, 1997; Friffin, 1997; Schilling & Hill, 1998; Hong & Doll, 2001; Donnellon, 1993; Millson, Ranj, & Wilemon, 1992; Shunk, 1992. In: Meybodi, M.Z. (2003)

Stage-Gage is a widely accepted process for NPD. Most U.S. companies engaged in product development have adopted and applied some form of the Stage-Gate model.
Source: O'Connor (1994); Bigwood (2004); Cooper (2006). In: Canez, L., L Puig, R. Quintero, M. Garfias (2007)

Stage-Gate NPD processes have been in existence since at least 1957, where it appeared in an article along with one of the first product-market matrices.
Source: Johnson & Jones (1957). In: Stevens, G., Burley, J., & Divine, R. (1999)

Stage-Gate approaches seek to manage risk and increase efficiency through adherence to a structured NPD process.
Source: Calantone & Di Benedetto (1988). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

Stage-Gate process models facilitate action across functions and projects by providing a common language and framework to enhance communications.
Source: Engwall et al (2005). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

Stage-Gate protocols provide an overall framework for project planning and management, and a basis for creating a series of checklists to ensure the steps and activities are completed.
Source: Cooper (1997). In: Riek, RF (2001)

Stages in the knowledge transfer process — for inward technology transfer to be successful, an organization should be able to search and scan for information which is new to the organization; recognize the potential benefit of this information by associating it with internal organizational needs and capabilities; communicate these to and assimilate them within the organization; and apply them for competitive advantage.
Source: Trott (1995). In: Major, E. & Cordey-Hayes, M. (2000)

Teams would be more effective when members come from diverse backgrounds and perspectives, and were facilitated by a collaborative structure and processes.
Source: Cougherty & Hardy, 1996; Kim & Maugorgne, 1999. In: Shum, P., & Lin, G. (2007)

The New Product Development (NPD) process described in 2001 consisted of six stages: 1) Discovery; 2) Scoping; 3) Building Business Case; 4) Development; 5) Testing & Validation; 6) Launching.
Source: Cooper, R. (2001). In: Kim, S, Park, Y. & Seol, H. (2007)

The adoption of a new product by the market is positively influenced by the product's advantages over competing products. A meta-study identified product advantage as the factor with the strongest impact on new product performance of all those studied.
Source: Montoya-Weiss & Calantone (1994). In: Veldhuizen, E., Hultink, E.J., & Griffin, A. (2006)

The faster a company completes the product development process, the greater is its likelihood of surpassing its competitors in the marketplace.
Source: Stalk, 1988; Stalk & Hout, 1990; Wheelwright & Clark, 1992; Williams, 1992. In: Datar, S., Jordan, C.C., Kekre, S., Rajiv, S. & Srinivasan, K. (1997)

The largest market share is achieved by the firm that first introduces its product to the market.
Source: Carpenter & Nakamoto, 1989; Kalyanaram & Urban, 1992; Smith & Reinertsen, 1991; & Urban et al. 1986. In: Datar, S., Jordan, C.C., Kekre, S., Rajiv, S. & Srinivasan, K. (1997)

The manage NPD effectively, managers are recommended to use a step-wise approach such as a stage-gate process.
Source: Cooper & Kleinschmidt (1991). In: Harmancioglu, N., McNally, R.C., Calantone, R.J., & Durmusoglu, S.S. (2007)

The primary finding was that market pull (i.e., identifying and understanding user needs), was substantially more important to the success of the new product, than was technology push. Therefore, a cross-functional view was seen as a key component of product success.
Source: Myers & Marquis, 1969. In: Brown, S.L. & Eisenhardt K.M. (1995)

There are advantages for US firms in using a market driving approach.
Source: Lynn, Mazzuca, Morone, & Paulson, 1998. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Top management support can take too much control over the new product development process, inhibiting new product success.
Source: Bonner, Ruekert & Walker, 2002; Yap & Souder, 1994. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Traditional new product development process consists of idea generation and validation; preliminary design; final design; process design; pilot production; and ramp-up.
Source: Wheelwrite & Clark, 1992; Russell & Taylor, 1998. In: Meybodi, M.Z. (2003)

Use a platform strategy, where technologies are shared across multiple product development projects, to create greater sales, profitability and lower costs.
Source: Meyer & Dalal, 2002; Nobeoka & Cusumano, 1997. In: Marsh, S. J., & Stock, G. N. (2006)

User needs must be precisely determined and met, and it is important that these needs are monitored throughout the course of the innovation since they very rarely remain completely static. Many successful firms achieve this deep and imaginative understanding of user needs through interaction with a representative sample of potential customers throughout development.
Source: Rothwell et al (1974). In: Gruner, K.E., & Homburg, C. (2000)

firms who adopted a market orientation achieved higher levels of relative profitability, sales growth and new product success.
Source: Narver, J.C. & Slater, S.F. (1990). In: Bogue, J., & Ritson, C. (2006)

Methods

7 prominent factors influence innovative success (not defined — just mentioned)
Source: Eanne et al. 2004. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

8 step process of relationship between NP survival and the characteristics of project management
Source: Thieme et al. 2003. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Association between successful NP efforts and high levels of co-operation and communication
Source: Vander Panne 2004. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Cross functional integration increases communication frequency and the amount of information flow in the organization
Source: Randolf and Posner, 1992. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Cross functional integration pools resources and skills from different functions, providing flexibility in the workforce and capital resources and enhancing the utilization of organizational resources
Source: Ford and Randolph, 1992. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Educating customers, avoiding “over-engineering”, performing market research
Source: Hopkins 1980. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Informal communication and successful project teams are characteristics of high levels of cooperation across functions
Source: Pinto and Pinto, 1991. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Information integration in the cross functional structure helps employees achieve a common understanding about the product and enhances consistency among decisions made throughout the NPD process
Source: Sethi, 2000. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Integrated KT is a collaborative, participatory, action-oriented way of conducting research that results in the co-creation of knowledge by researchers and knowledge users. The end result of this collaboration is the integration of research findings into clinical practice in a more structured, efficient, expedient and effective manner.
Source: Tetroe (2007). In: McGrath, P.J., Lingley-Pottie, P., Johnson Emberly, D., Thurston,C., McLean, C. (2009)

Integration of new product development teams
Source: Akgun 2003. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

PDMA’s best practice survey found that 60% of US companies use cross-functional integration to develop new products.
Source: Griffin 1997. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Proficient R&D, technical entrepreneurs acting as information bridges
Source: Globe, et al, 1973. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Quality Function Deployment — considered a good tool for communication between Marketing, Engineering and NPD teams
Source: Hauser and Clausing, 1998; Griffin and Hauser, 1993. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Supplier relationships should be closely linked to facilitate the introduction of new technology prior to the competition, thereby encouraging new product success.
Source: Bonaccorsi & Lipparini, 1994; Meyers & Athaide, 1991. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Understanding customer needs proficient design and manufacturing activities, close contacts with end user
Source: Rothwell 1974, Cooper 1980, Zirger & Maidique 1990. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Use rich communication media such as group meetings and face-to-face contact to reduce ambiguity by enabling the organisational actors to overcome their different frames of reference.
Source: 4.6. In: Brun, E., & Saetre, A.S. (2008)

Tips

Different types of NPD approaches can be drawn from various best practices found in the literature.
Source: Jin et al (1997). In: Zhongqi Jin (2001)

Establishing a knowledge/technology network across universities can facilitate the development of common knowledge/technology transfer standards, training and practices; simplify and expanded industry access to expertise; accrue benefits from economies of scale; share common resources and expenditures; and provide unified representation on national and international bodies.
Source: Netval (2009a, 2009b). In: Tommaso, M.R. & Ramaciotti, L. (2010)

Functional diversity can increase decision complexity and confusion
Source: Sethi, 2000. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

If a product is new to the market, it is important to know the target market's requirements of the product, and to translate those requirements into appropriate product specifications.
Source: Cooper et al (1998). In: Zhongqi Jin (2001)

Informal communication patterns, participative decision making, and consensual conflict resolution in cross functional integration can be more time consuming and less efficient than more centralized and bureaucratic processes
Source: In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Integrated KT (which leverages the involvement of key stakeholders from research inception to completion) is not appropriate for all research. Some research is not intended to produce a result that should be directly used in policy making, clinical care or public health.
Source: Tetroe (2007). In: McGrath, P.J., Lingley-Pottie, P., Johnson Emberly, D., Thurston,C., McLean, C. (2009)

Internal transfer of best practices often accounts for a large portion of an organization’s collective knowledge.
Source: O’Dell (1998). In: Lu, I.Y., Moa, C.J. & Wang, C.H. (2010)

Keep rules and procedures flexible for highly innovative companies (prospectors)because they need to act quickly when the marketplace changes.
Source: Burns & Stalker (1961), Hage & Aiken (1970), and Miles & Snow (1978). In: Laugen, B. r. T., Boer, H., & Acur, N. (2006)

New product success was primarily related to five factors: understanding of user needs; attention to marketing and publicity; efficiency of development; effective use of outside technology and external scientific communication; and seniority and authority of the managers' responsible for the development of the product.
Source: Rothwell et all, 1974; Rothwell, 1972. In: Zirger, B.J., & Maidique, M.A. (1990)

Project leaders should maintain the project vision, lobby for resources, protect the group from outside interference, and manage the impressions of outsiders
Source: Ancona & Caldwell, 1992b. In: Brown, S.L. & Eisenhardt K.M. (1995)

Small lot sizes are associated with improved quality, reduced inventory, faster delivery, and being more responsive to market demands.
Source: illesback, 1991; Cook & Rogowski, 1996; Hobbs, 1994; Payne, 1993; Temponi & Pandya, 1995; White, 1993; Deshpande & Golhar, 1995; Handfield, 1993; Lawrence & Hottenstein, 1995. In: Meybodi, M.Z. (2003)

Success factors for high tech new product development in the West may not necessarily be applicable in non-Western countries, or in the lower tech industries where these countries hold competitive advantage.
Source: Karakaya & Kobu, 1994; Mishra, Kim, & Lee, 1996. In: Suwannapron, P., Speece, M (2003)

Technology should be leveraged after process and analysis have taken place. Effective use of technology can shorten development time, reduce the number of prototypes, cut costs, and improve quality of the design.
Source: Karagozoglu & Brown, 1993; Rosenthal, 1992. In: Meybodi, M.Z. (2003)

The key task of global knowledge management is to foster and direct collaborative cross-cultural learning and development.
Source: Holden (2001, 2008). In: Hong, J., Heikkinen, J. & Blomqvist, K. (2010)

The process of researching, developing, and producing innovations is iterative, and feedback loops are present at all stages.
Source: Kline, S. J., 1985. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

There are at least three types of university-industry research and development related approaches to knowledge interaction: technology and knowledge transfer, knowledge integration and collaborative knowledge creation.
Source: Hong (2007). In: Hong, J., Heikkinen, J. & Blomqvist, K. (2010)

University knowledge/technology transfer policies and roles can influence academic involvement in the creation of new ventures (e.g., spinoff companies). Availability of a university-based technology transfer office, establishment of a science park and ties to business incubators are some of the ways universities can positively influence academic involvement. Availability of supplementary commercial knowledge and resources is crucial.
Source: Netval (2009a); Nosella (2009); Colombo (2002, 2004); Grimaldi (2005). In: Tommaso, M.R. & Ramaciotti, L. (2010)

Utilize different problem solving strategies for established verses rapidly changing products. For established — use extensive planning and overlapped development. For rapidly changing- use frequent iterations, extensive testing and short milestones
Source: Hayes et al, 1988; Womack et al, 1990. In: Brown, S.L. & Eisenhardt K.M. (1995)

When implementing a knowledge translation communication strategy, researchers should try to adopt a proactive approach to dissemination.
Source: Hughes (2000); Harmsworth (2001). In: Wilson, P.M., Petticrew, M., Calnan, M. W. & Nazareth, I. (2010)