Full citation

Mital, A., & Desai, A. (2007). Enhancing the Product Development Process Through a Sequential Approach Part III: Manufacturing. International Journal of Product Development, 4(1/2), 7-7.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Experience

Experience level of reader: Advanced

Annotation: Third paper in a series focused here on the design principles that enhance product usability (maintainability and ease of use), design review for quality, and demand forecasting to ensure adequate facilities and infrastructure.

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees)

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Brokers, Manufacturers

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Organization

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary Findings

Barrier: Barriers to accomplishing effective Design Reviews include the following: — The DR team consists of people who are unevenly matched in skills and knowledge. — Product developers tend to press on with little communication among related departments. — The product development schedule is often cramped and allows for little time and flexibility for changes in response to DR. — The DR team may lack the expertise, resources or authority to to make the process effective. — During the concept phase of the design process, the DR team has little basis on which to provide feedback. — Product Design managers view DR to be separate from design, thereby leaving little scope for conducting DR of drawings, specifications etc. — DR is an additional demand on both the design and engineering teams, both of which are under constraints.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 5.4, Step 5.1, Step 6.4, Step 6.2

Measure: Computerized methods of materials selection include Computer Aided Material and Process Selection (CAMPS).
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.7

Model: A revolutionary idea (in terms of either a product concept or a new product design) coupled with quick and efficient execution at all levels of the decision-making process (conception, design, cost and implementation) is a winning combination.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.

Methods:

  • In anticipation of the time and resource demands of mass production, an optimal selection of materials and manufacturing processes is critical. Materials shaping processes are material specific and include forging, casting, investment casting, spin or blow molding.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.6, Step 7.5
  • Manufacturing Facilities Design — buildings to house and equipment to conduct manufacturing process. The design includes the following considerations: — Type of equipment; — Power rating of equipment; — Number of machines required; — Manufacturing facilities layout.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.4
  • Design Review does not create good ideas, but instead ensures that good ideas work as well as possible. Design Review involves six actions: 1) Collect and compile information; 2) Define quality targets; 3) Evaluate product and process designs and supporting operations; 4) Proposition of improvements; 5) Definition of subsequent actions; 6) Confirmation of readiness to move to next stage.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 5.4, Step 5.1, Step 6.4, Step 6.2
  • Once the product design is finalized, its cost structure determined and future demand forecasted, production manufacturing needs must be planned and build. The size, selection of equipment, material routing characteristics etc., of these facilities are largely dictated by the demand forecast. Over production increases inventory carrying costs, while under production fails to fill orders.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.4
  • Product fabrication is the means by which shape, size, and other intended physical properties are imparted to a device or product. The critical criteria include selecting appropriate materials to enable the device to satisfy its function, and to ensure that manufacturing costs are minimized in terms of equipment, power, labor, overhead and rework costs.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.1
  • Cost Estimation — A product's costs include development, manufacturing, advertising, selling warranties and replacements. Relevant cost definitions include: Capital Cost — cost of borrowing money to finance entire development, production, commercialization process. Direct Cost — costs clearly traceable to a unit of output in terms of device or service unit. Manufacturing Overhead Cost — all costs excluding direct materials and direct labor. Prime Cost — total of direct material and direct labor.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.7, Step 7.3
  • Design for Quality/Design Review — the systematic process of bringing complex products to the market quickly, while ensuring product design quality meets customer requirements, within cost and time constraints. Design Review is is generally applied at the general design stage, and to a lesser degree, at the detailed design and pilot building stages. Design Review is based on two premises: 1) Make the best of available knowledge and technology from both in-house and outside resources; 2) Do everything to resolve problems as they arise. Avoid passing them downstream.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 5.4, Step 5.1, Step 6.4, Step 6.2
  • Manufacturing processes can be categorized into three classes: 1) Primary — the main shape generating processes (cast, forge, mold). 2) Secondary — refine the part's features or form (machine, grind, broach). 3) Tertiary — finishing processes such as surface and heat treatments that typically affect only one attribute of the product.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.4
  • Designing Storage Facilities — storage and warehouse facilities involve processing of raw materials, semi-finished components and finished goods. The tasks include receiving, inspecting, storage, packaging, labeling and shipping. They consider these factors: — Physical similarity — items with similar characteristics are grouped together; — Functional similarity — functionally-related items are grouped together; — Popularity — frequency with which items are stored, accessed or retrieved. — Reserve stock separation — keeping reserve supplies apart form working stock.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 8.1, Step 7.9
  • Optimal selection manufacturing processes is as important as the selection of materials. The following guidelines help with this selection: 1) Standardization — using standard and pre-shaped components and machines. 2) Raw Materials — minimize component costs and apply raw materials in standard form where possible. 3) Component Design — strive for use of a single machine tool, and ensure design fits within internal manufacturing expertise. 4) Rotational Component Design — ensure that cylindrical surfaces are concentric and plan surfaces are normal to the component axis, and that diameters of external features increase from the exposed face. 5) Non-rotational Component Design — provide a base for work holding and reference. 6) Assembly Design — Design components to ensure that assembly is possible, and that interfacing surfaces are matched and mated. 7) Accuracy and Finish — Specify the widest tolerances and roughest surfaces that will give the required performance.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.6
  • Product Demand Forecasting — helps an organization effectively manage issues including: monthly/quarterly/annual sales targets; estimating inventory on hand to meet orders without an excessive backlog; estimating raw materials necessary to meet manufacturing targets and deadlines; projection of timeline for acquiring and stocking materials inventory for manufacturing; estimating labor force (workers, managers, technicians) required to commence and complete production schedule detailed above; effects of monetary value of forecasted activity on company's operating capital and profitability.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.3

Tips:

  • All products are formed of some materials or combination of materials. The choice of materials depends on numerous factors such as intended function, workability (ease of manufacturing), and cost.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.1
  • Guidelines for materials selection: — It is best to group materials related to principal shape generating processes used in discrete parts manufacture; — For initial material searches look at material categories rather than specific materials which is sufficient for early process/material decision-making. — For each process, it is best to have a super material that offers the best attainable properties of all materials in that category. Material trade-offs within the process can be made at a later date. — As detailed part specifications become available, one can eliminate the excess process and materials options. The final choice is usually one optimal material and the most compatible process. — Minimize material costs by using available mill forms, standard stock shapes gauges, grades and formulations whenever possible. Consider using pre-finished materials and match materials to functions.
    Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 7.1, Step 7.7