Full citation

Campbell, R.I., De Beer, D.J., Barnard, L.J., Booysen, G.J., Truscott, M., Cain, R., et al. (2007). Design Evolution Through Customer Interaction with Functional Prototypes. Journal of Engineering Design, 18(6), 617-635.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Research — Non-experimental

Experience level of reader: Fundamental

Annotation: Authors suggest that product designers can use the CIFP technique to engage customers directly and iteratively throughout the design and development stages.

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees), University

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Manufacturers, Researchers

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Individual

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary Findings

Model: The whole NPD process must begin and end with the customer. At each stage of the process, the customer requirements are re-interpreted into desirable design outcomes related to the specific tasks at hand. To be absolutely confident that the design outcomes at any particular stage still coincide with the customer's requirements, it is necessary to involved the customer in a verification role throughout the NPD process.
Case studies in industry.

Method: Physical models are the single presentation format that is readily understood by most customers, to ensure that the evolution of a product's design is kept consistent with customer requirements. Creating a visually accurate prototype is not sufficient. It must display a high level of realism and represent every characteristic of the product. Rapid prototyping is a method for achieving the required level of accuracy and completeness.
Case studies in industry.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Stage 4, Stage 5, Stage 6