Full citation

Moorman, C., & Miner, A.S. (1998). The Convergence of Planning and Execution: Improvisation in New Product Development. Journal of Marketing, 62(3), 1-20.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Research — Non-experimental

Experience level of reader: Fundamental

Annotation: A longitudinal study shows that organizational improvisation occurs moderately in organizations, and that organizational memory level decreases and environmental turbulence level increases the incidence of improvisation in organizations.

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees), University

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Manufacturers, Researchers

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Organization

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary Findings

Model: Improvisation during NPD is a strategy of emergent learning that can be employed as a substitute for planning. However, improvisation is not a free good nor is it effective under all conditions. It must be directed explicitly, its trade-offs and tensions acknowledge and managed, and the conditions in which it is effective must be understood and nurtured by organizations.
Analysis of NPD processes in two firms over a nine-month period.