Step 4.6

Initiate key co-development practices with partners.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Private companies seldom disclose their development practices to protect intellectual property. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Distance inhibits KT, and that distance may come in the form of cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical differences.
Literature review findings
(View full citation)

Interviewees often stated social aspects of meetings were positively affected by the presence of women however in other questions their presence is not perceived as essential content-wise. This illustrates an unconscious inability to link the quality of social processes to the outcome of the project.
Study findings
(View full citation)

Mutual trust for trusts sake cannot be established without effort and time. The conditions necessary for information sharing must be built incrementally. The phases of trust between agencies are economy-based, information-based (behaviors are reasonably predictable), and lastly identification based trust.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

International R&D requires collaboration and sharing of tactic knowledge among sites. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Formal coordination measures can hinder innovation. For example, if headquarters dictates goals to subsidiaries with higher technological expertise.  
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Complexities and costs of negotiating with universities on contract issues (deliverables, timetables, and intellectual property rights)for small and medium sized enterprises are too large to make a relationship worth while.
Authors discussions with small and medium sized enterprises revealed their belief that the costs involved in locating and contracting with university researchers were too high.
(View full citation)

Factors that may negatively influence the likelihood that an academic/researcher will engage in the provision of consulting services include, reliance on university internal funding (as opposed to private funding), and when they are active in computer sciences (rather than in life sciences) — based upon an examination of six fields, physics, mathematics and statistics, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, and life sciences.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
(View full citation)

Firms which attempt to use information in ways that do not match their strategic orientation, create internal barriers to effective information sharing, integration and synthesis by their internal project teams.
Survey of 150 software development teams.
(View full citation)

Outsourcing expertise in NPD is difficult to implement in two ways. First, the danger of hollowing out the internal knowledge base so that the organization loses the core competence in key areas. Second, the firm loses the ability to integrate expertise from within the firm and across the supply chain. The firm may realize short-term cost savings but risks losing core competence to external sources.
Corporate case study.
(View full citation)

Carriers

Relationships between incubators and universities can be a channel for knowledge sharing and technology transfer. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Sharing knowledge among researchers and practitioners offers many benefits: producing knew knowledge, facilitating skills development, increasing collaboration, improving problem solving and sustaining competitive advantage.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Knowledge sharing networks can attract participants for reasons other than the explicit mission of the project:

  • In response to being personally invited
  • To seek funding opportunities
  • For access to other facilities and equipment
  • To support graduate students
  • To recruit more researchers
  • To disseminate best practices
  • To support the projects’ cause for ideological reasons
  • To gain individual knowledge and experience

Survey findings
(View full citation)

Research and development are complementary to collaboration via partnerships because innovation relies on interaction among different actors.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Being cognizant of gender practicing (actions taken moment to moment) in context of gender practices (existing cultural norms) enables actors to reproduce or challenge unequal practices.
Study findings
(View full citation)

Four main project characteristics influence an alliance:

  • Commitment - willingness to invest money, time, or other resources into the collaboration
  • Intellectual property management – managing ownership of new ideas and control over their dissemination
  • Coordination –communicated interdependence between parties
  • Communication processes – exchange of ideas and information among individuals and organizations

Project data analysis 
(View full citation)

Mutual trust for trusts sake cannot be established without effort and time. The conditions necessary for information sharing must be built incrementally. The phases of trust between agencies are economy-based, information-based (behaviors are reasonably predictable), and lastly identification based trust. 
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Incubators often tout networking as a major attribute because social networks are informal and valuable relationships which take time and positioning to build.  
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Hybrid coordination describes efforts with elements of both structured and informal coordination, such as structured projects with sub-tasks driven by interpersonal relationships. Case study findings
(View full citation)

Collaboration via hubs creates innovation and solves problems faster, speeding up development cycles and reducing project costs. 
Literature review and case study.
(View full citation)

An organization can designate Boundary Spanners — staff who establish effective communication protocols between the internal and external sources of expertise. The Boundary Spanners keep the internal units involved in the same activities as the external suppliers, by way of dry runs, shadow engineering, or patenting in the supplier's domain. Organizations gain the speed and cost efficiency of outsourcing, while maintaining and updating core competencies.
Corporate case study.
(View full citation)

Factors that may positively influence the likelihood that an academic/researcher will create a spin-off company include: increased novelty of the research (significant changes in materials or production techniques), increased network assets, greater research unit size, greater experience, affiliation to the engineering field (rather than to the life sciences field), affiliation to the computer sciences field (rather than to the life sciences field), affiliation to large research universities (rather than small and medium ones), and being a man (rather than a woman) — based upon an examination of six fields, physics, mathematics and statistics, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, and life sciences.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
(View full citation)

Factors that may positively influence the likelihood that an academic/researcher will engage in the provision of consulting services include, reliance on private funding (as opposed to internal university funding), increases in their network assets, increases in the size of their research unit, affiliation with large research universities (rather than small and medium ones), and when they are in engineering (rather than in life sciences) — based upon an examination of six fields, physics, mathematics and statistics, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, and life sciences.
How academics manage their portfolio of knowledge transfer activities.
(View full citation)

Gatekeepers - Bring information into the organization and disperse it among fellow cross-functional team members, as well as serve as point of communication contact with external partners and key customers.
Review of Literature — 1969 — 1994.
(View full citation)

Information Technology can be designed to facilitate communication and interaction among cross-functional team members, both for internal and external communications. The IT provides conveniences for team member discussions and information exchanges at any time or place.
Survey of manufacturers in Taiwan (n = 102).
(View full citation)

Organizational Structure facilitates communication. The characteristics of the organizational structure are shown to facilitate cross-functional team work if they are less centralized and less formal. This structure provides a great deal of freedom for team members to do their work, and facilitate free-flowing communication and coordination among the members.
Survey of manufacturers in Taiwan (n = 102).
(View full citation)

Models

(2) Technological innovation systems (TIS) incorporate the actors and rules influencing the speed and direction of change in a specific technological area. The TIS approach emphasizes the interplay of all relevant actors.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Methods

Complex technologies require a collaborative approach for successful innovation and diffusion. Minimizing the level of innovation system uncertainty should be a focus of collaboration to identify needs, demonstrate the value of technologies, and work together to design and deliver post-purchase support. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Trust between agencies can be economically-based or institution-based trust, or belief that the agency has the means to fulfill obligations. Individuals earn partners’ trust by displaying abilities (competence-based) or trustworthiness (benevolence-based trust).
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Use various product simulation conditions to optimize products for widespread use. 
Case-based research
(View full citation)

Founders of research collaborative firms may start multiple firms and cultivate clusters of businesses working off of the same pool of research and talent.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Obtain early commitment from suppliers, establish clear definitions and expectations, understand suppliers’ alternatives
Survey.
(View full citation)

Sharing of technology and cost-related information between suppliers and buyers can improve internal team dynamics as well as exchanges between organizations. One strategy is sharing the organization's technology road map, which details the products and performance criteria anticipated to be developed by the organization over the following years, decade or century. Sharing such information with a supplier may lead to advantages such as reducing technology uncertainty and influencing industry standard designs.
Survey of 84 companies.
(View full citation)

Six general themes for NPD best practice are described: (1) Instill a strategic, long-term orientation toward NPD. (2) Have a formal portfolio management process. (3) Implement a formal NPD process supported by a discipline to adhere to this process. (4) Conduct market research proactively. (5) Use cross-functional teams. (6) Utilize standardized criteria and metrics.
Generated from published studies on benchmarking data.
(View full citation)

Supplier involvement on a new product development team can lead to improved project outcomes and reduced technology uncertainty. Involvement may be more beneficial early on during R&D for new products and those that are highly specialized. Later stage involvement may be more appropriate for incremental products and products with short life cycles.
Survey of 84 companies.
(View full citation)

When seeking partners consider — in order — technological alignment (technical ability, technical resource and market knowledge complementarity, and overlapping knowledge bases); strategic alignment (motivation correspondence and goal correspondence); and relational alignment (compatible cultures, propensity to change, and long-term orientation).
Narrative analysis of case studies and literature review.
(View full citation)

Tips

When assigning roles, be cognizant of who is expected to “pour the coffee” i.e. give tours, take notes, give up a seat at the table, make small talk, plan parties, and handle other such social or domestic office labor. Assign these tasks equally by job role and be mindful not to reproduce unequal gender practices. 
Study findings
(View full citation)

A collaborative work environment is positively associated with NPD project efficiency. Collocation of project members reduces the physical distances between them. The removal of distance as a barrier should improve overall project efficiency, as information transactions and other communications are made easier.
Survey of 137 completed NPD projects. Managers’ perceptions of a collaborative environment were significantly higher on average for efficient projects as opposed to Inefficient projects, supporting one hypothesis.
(View full citation)

Establish contracts with suppliers early in the process to ensure a source of raw materials, and to engage their expertise within the overall planning process.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

Firms that encourage the free circulation of information and knowledge among those responsible for a new product, and that prevent specialist tunnel-vision in problem solving, appear to come up with better products faster, and use fewer man-hours in doing so.
Findings from literature review by authors.
(View full citation)

In the federal system, networking should be extended to contractors. They should be invited to participate early. Contractor recommendations on research plans and schedules could reduce implementation risks. To ensure fair competition, all interested contractors should be asked to participate.
Lessons from empirical study.
(View full citation)

Involvement of customers with strong past ties will result in the development of products with higher competitive performance than those that involve customers with no or few past ties. However, this practice is most effective when developing incremental products, rather than highly innovative products.
Survey of 137 new product development projects.
(View full citation)

Matching new product development tasks to employee interests and strengths helps to ensure that those tasks will be appropriately handled. Employees who possess traits associated with inventors thrive in R&D environments; those who act as champions do well during the opportunity recognition phase; those who are project implementers are best placed in project execution roles; while serial innovators do well throughout the entire process.
Survey data.
(View full citation)

Participate in a Research Center within a University to help find new ideas, gain access to scientists and to recruit new graduate students.
The longitudinal evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers Programs found both Universities and Industries to be satisfied with the Centers and felt their expectations were being met.
(View full citation)

Researchers are usually required to obtain advance approval from independent ethics boards prior to engaging in research that involves human subjects. Knowledge users (stakeholder groups) are often unfamiliar with requirements associated with informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, data access and data management. Ensure these requirements and their implications for participation, process and practice are understood at the beginning of the project.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
(View full citation)

Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). To avoid interruptions that could result from the departure of specific stakeholder group members, researchers should establish group- or institutional-level linkages.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
(View full citation)

The appropriate image for the NPD process is self-similarity. For example, exemplary leadership, sensitive communications, and integrative managerial structure are necessary for effective NPD-regardless of the level of the organization.
Conclusions drawn from empirical study.
(View full citation)

The contribution of the supplier in new product development (NPD) can, in fact, enable the buyer to: 1. Take advantage of the technological competence of the supplier. 2. Shorten the time to market. 3. Improve the quality and lower the global cost. 4. Increase the level of motivation of suppliers, because the suppliers become responsible for the whole product design and not just 'pieces' of it.
Experiential. Authors' knowledge.
(View full citation)

To improve short-term competitive performance of products in the marketplace, projects to develop incremental new products should involve homogeneous groups of customers.
Survey of 137 product development projects.
(View full citation)

Secondary findings

Barriers

Differences in organizational cultures, mindsets, expectations, and behavior. Knowledge spillover may result when dealing with proprietary information in collaborations.
Source: Hanson & Lackman, 1998; Tse, Francis & Walls, 1994; Yan, Luo, & Child, 2000. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Carriers

The existence of an overarching relationship (historical or longstanding) between a researcher and relevant decision makers (knowledge users), where research utilization is only one activity in the larger, ongoing relationship, can be important for the utilization of research findings.
Source: Goering (2003); Mohrman (2001); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2002); Golden-Biddle (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Methods

Degree of CFI ( interaction, communication, info-sharing, coordination) is key driver of new product success
Source: Griffin and Hauser, 1992, 1996; Gupta, Raj and Wilemon, 1986. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Dougherty showed that different “departmental thought worlds” — i.e. systems of common procedures, judgments and methods — exist in product innovation processes and that members of these thought worlds produce different interpretations of development priorities and tasks. Dougherty suggested collaboration mechanisms to unify these thought worlds and thereby reduce the divergence of interpretations.
Source: Dougherty (1992). In: Brun, E., & Saetre, A.S. (2008)

In order to exchange information externally and internally for better NPD, a firm requires employees to be spanning the boundaries of the firm to exchange information with other organizations.
Source: Ancona, D. & Caldwell, D. (1992). In: Frahm, J., Ireland, D.C., & Hine, D. (2007)

Table 1 Studies on Collaborative NPD lists 12 studies related to codevelopment and collaboration in new product development.
Source: See table 1. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

The sharing of designing responsibility and the exchange of information concerning the product has enabled the assemblers to improve time, cost, and quality performances.
Source: Clark, K. & Fujimoto, T. (1991). In: De Toni, A., & Nassimbeni, G. (2001)

Tips

Consideration of quality /features/benefits of products
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Musselwhite reported that over 80% of the projects using a cross-functional team met or exceeded commercial expectations-compared with 60% for projects headed by technical line management, 50% for technical project management, and only 20% for one-person operations.
Source: Musselwhite (1990). In: Spivey, W.A., Munson, J.M., & Wolcott, J.H. (1997)

One of the major reasons that concurrent engineering has gained broad acceptance is its impact on time. CE will get the manufacturing and marketing departments involved early in the development process. This will enable these departments to influence the design and obtain a more cost effective and high quality products. CE takes advantage of the latest advances in computer and information technologies to develop libraries with comprehensive accumulations of product and process designs. Therefore, knowledge gained during the development of one product is captured and then passed on to subsequent product developments as templates.
Source: Salomone (1995), Kamrani and Salhieh (2002). In: Kamrani, A., & Vijayan, A. (2006)

Organizational strength (strategy, skills, culture) as driver of new product success
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya-Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)