Full citation

Hetzner, W. A., Gidley, T. R., & Gray, D. O. (1989). Cooperative Research and Rising Expectations: Lessons from NSF's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers.Technology in Society, 11(3), 335-345.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Research — Non-experimental

Experience level of reader: Fundamental

Annotation: This article provides a short description of the history behind the development of the Cooperative Research Centers Program. It aggregates 10 years of evaluation data captured from all centers to understand the programs vitality. Overall the Centers have been meeting the expectations of both the industry partners and the Universities. Companies who have participated in a Center have reported some modifications to how they conduct and evaluate their own internal research projects.

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Government, Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees), University

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Manufacturers, Policy Makers, Researchers

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Sector

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary Findings


  • Enter into a viable Research Center to help find funding for research.
    Faculties of Universities participating in Research Centers have been able to secure funding from their business partners.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.9
  • Participate in a Research Center within a University to help find new ideas, gain access to scientists and to recruit new graduate students.
    The longitudinal evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers Programs found both Universities and Industries to be satisfied with the Centers and felt their expectations were being met.
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Tip 4.9, Tip 4.12, Step 4.1, Step 4.6, Step 1.3