Full citation

Kamrani, A., & Vijayan, A. (2006). A Methodology for Integrated Product Development Using Design and Manufacturing Templates. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(5), 656-672.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Research — Non-experimental

Experience level of reader: Advanced

Annotation: The paper presents a template based methodology to integrating product and process planning. The templates are used to reduce cost and increase process and design efficiencies beginning at the concept generation phase. The templates are based on five components, design calculations, component search, machine and process selection and cost estimation.

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees)

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Brokers, Manufacturers

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Organization

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary Findings


  • By using templates, the time required for new product development is drastically reduced. At the same time incorporating computer-aided process planning into the system gives the designer a better understanding of the cost implications of the modified design with respect to manufacturing. The major challenge in implementing of such system is that any changes in the manufacturing facility have to be incorporated in the process plans stored. This can be a tedious job but can be overcome by using hybrid process planning approach instead of variant based approach.
    Author experience
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Tip 2.4, Step 4.12, Step 4.3, Step 2.2, Step 4.2, Step 7.1, Step 7.6, Step 7.5, Step 7.4, Step 7.3, Step 7.2
  • Process planning task involves the development of a set of work instructions used for part transformation from its initial to final form. In the proposed system, the process plan module provides detailed information and description of manufacturing processes and machine tools required. The information includes: . list of required machines; . specific cutting energy for the work material; . standard set-up and tear down times; . number of tools required; and . cost per hour of operation. A search heuristic is developed for the selection of appropriate process plan. If a process plan is not found in the database, a new process plan will be generated based on the defined design features, dimensions and required tolerance for finished product. The information from the developed process plan is used to calculate the manufacturing time and cost.
    Author developed template
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.12, Step 7.1, Step 7.6, Step 7.5, Step 7.4, Step 7.3, Step 7.2

Secondary Findings


  • The pan-European systematic concurrent design of products, equipments and control systems (SCOPES) project was completed in July 1995. Its aim was to develop a system framework which was able to store and provide knowledge of a company’s products, processes, equipment and shop floor control strategies to the product development team. The most crucial part of this project was the integration of engineering and production knowledge. (Wallace [1995])
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.8, Step 4.7
  • An interesting modification to concurrent engineering is the agile concurrent engineering (ACE) methodology. Its main characteristics are full utilization of resources through resource sharing, agile teams suited for medium or small-sized firms and minimum organization restructuring. In this methodology, a quantitative modeling tool for the concurrent engineering process was developed which describes the mini-circulations and resource sharing within the system. This tool (ESHLEP-N) was a high-level evaluation, stochastic Petri-net model. (Yan and Jiang [1999])
    Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.10, Step 4.7, Step 7.6, Step 7.5, Step 7.4

Tip: One of the major reasons that concurrent engineering has gained broad acceptance is its impact on time. CE will get the manufacturing and marketing departments involved early in the development process. This will enable these departments to influence the design and obtain a more cost effective and high quality products. CE takes advantage of the latest advances in computer and information technologies to develop libraries with comprehensive accumulations of product and process designs. Therefore, knowledge gained during the development of one product is captured and then passed on to subsequent product developments as templates. (Salomone [1995], Kamrani and Salhieh [2002])
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.1, Step 4.6, Step 9.3