Full citation 578

Trigo, Alexandre. Innovation in the era of experience: the changing role of users in healthcare innovation. Journal of entrepreneurship, management and innovation. Volume 12, Issue 2, 2016: 29-52.

Format: Peer-reviewed article

Type: Experience

Experience level of reader: Fundamental

Annotation: Patient involvement is a meaningful and productive means of developing healthcare innovations. Customers as co-creators contribute new knowledge. Patients can drive or contribute to R&D at all phases of R&D. 

Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Government, Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees), University.

Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Policy Makers, Researchers.

Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Organization

This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model

Primary findings


  • Enterprises rarely innovate without regard for economics, profit, etc. Orphan conditions are under-addressed due to lack of financial incentive. NtK Steps 2.1, 7.3
  • Healthcare is a discipline based on science and technology, so user-driven innovation may go unleveraged if users are not viewed as potential contributors. NtK Steps 3.2
  • Data collection methods affect the quantity and quality of feedback. For example, less tech savvy patients interact less with touch screens or tablets. NtK Steps 3.3, 6.1


  • Patients contribute the benefits of first-hand experience, practical knowledge, and individual feelings to the innovation process. NtK Steps 1.2, 1.5
  • Patient involvement increases relevance pragmatism and overall usefulness of research. NtK Steps 1.2, 2.2, 5.2
  • Research and development are complementary to collaboration via partnerships because innovation relies on interaction among different actors. NtK Step 4.6
  • Users / patients who create solutions or improve treatments for themselves can help others in their same situation, if they are able to share their progress. NtK Steps 2.2


Lead users are experience-based experts with keen insights into their own needs. They may be found among passionate, devoted users/patients. NtK Step 3.2