Koufteros, X., Vonderembse, M. & Jayaram, J. (2005). Internal and External Integration for Product Development: The contingency effects of uncertainty, equivocality and platform strategy. Decision Sciences, 36(1), 97-133.
Format: Peer-reviewed article
Type: Research — Non-experimental
Experience level of reader: Advanced
Annotation: Internal integration of staff/departmental activities (e.g., cross-functional teams, concurrent workflow), improves NPD performance. It is also a necessary precursor to enable the integration of external partners, specifically supplier products, supplier processes, and information from the target customer base.
Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Federal lab, Government, Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees)
Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Brokers, Manufacturers
Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Organization
This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model
Method: Plan for integration of internal organizational activities, which can increase communication, coordination and enhances competitive capabilities.
Survey of 244 manufacturing firms across several industries.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.8, Step 4.7
Tip: Equivocality — the presence of multiple and conflicting interpretations about a phenomenon, with higher levels of equivocality representing confusion and a poor understanding of the referenced context. In situations of high equivocality seek to integrate information about both supplier products and about customer requirements. In situations of low equivocality, seek to integrate information about supplier processes.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Gate 1, Gate 2, Gate 3, Gate 4, Gate 5, Gate 6
Carrier: Boundary Spanning — external integration can impact innovation speed and frequency by facilitating coordination with boundary groups. (Parthasarthy & Hammond  p.79)
Occurrence of finding within the model: Stage 3, Stage 4, Stage 2, Stage 5, Stage 6
Method: Customers can evaluate the product's interface with existing operations and feedback can benefit supplying firms because such feedback alerts sellers to buyer's perceptions of salient product attributes and reduces market uncertainty. (Stump, Athaide & Joshi  p. 444.)
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 6.1, Step 5.3
Method: Firms seek integration with external constituents to fill technical or market-based competency gaps. (McDermott & O'Connor )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.1