Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees. (2007). Institutionalizing end-user demand steering in agricultural R&D:. Research Policy, (37), 460-472.
Format: Peer-reviewed article
Type: Research — Non-experimental
Experience level of reader: Fundamental
Annotation: Literature review and case study show that efforts to institutionalize end-user demand pull forces within R&D funding programs, are mitigated by the values, norms, interests and inter-dependencies of key actors within the sponsor and the R&D organizations.
Setting(s) to which the reported activities/findings are relevant: Large business, Small business (less than 500 employees)
Knowledge user(s) to whom the piece of literature may be relevant: Manufacturers, Policy Makers, Researchers
Knowledge user level addressed by the literature: Sector
This article uses the Commercial Devices and Services version of the NtK Model
- The priorities established by R&D sponsors do not necessarily reflect the highest priority needs of the target beneficiaries. Instead of representing the short-term (tactical) needs of the farmers, the sponsor's R&D priorities may instead represent long-term (strategic) needs as perceived by key actors within the sponsor agency.
Case study of agricultural R&D within The Netherlands.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Stage 1, Stage 2
- R&D Project planning is influenced by the norms and values of key actors within the sponsor organization. Researchers view the sponsor as the Customer rather than viewing the target beneficiary as the Customer.
Case study of agricultural R&D system within The Netherlands.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 1.4, Step 2.1
Method: An Innovation Systems perspective suggests that end users should be involved in the identification of enabling or constraining factors to innovation. End users should also be involved in joint actions to capitalize on possibilities and remove impediments that may exist (e.g., legislation, infrastructure, policy, culture).
Case study of an agricultural system within The Netherlands.
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 2.3, Step 2.2
Carrier: To mitigate power inequalities and transcend the different cognitive and cultural worlds of participating stakeholders, an independent facilitator should guide the process and fulfill an intermediary role as a knowledge broker. (Sperling & Ashby ; Hargadon )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.1, Step 4.11, Step 2.2, Step 3.5, Step 1.1, Step 6.3, Step 6.1, Step 5.3
- For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process. (Douthwaite et al )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 3.1, Step 3.9, Step 4.1, Step 4.11, Step 4.3, Step 2.2, Step 3.5, Step 1.1, Step 6.3, Step 6.1, Step 5.3
- Decision-making process regarding the funding of R&D proposals involves different people performing four different roles within the decision process: 1) Approvers; 2) Takers; 3) Shapers; 5) Influencers. (Woodhead )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Gate 2, Gate 3, Gate 4, Gate 5
- Some areas of innovation lend themselves better to participatory development than others, and different types of innovation (incremental vs. radical) call for particular competences on the part of participating end users. (Sumberg et al ); Lettl )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Step 4.11, Step 4.3, Step 2.2, Step 3.5, Step 1.1, Step 5.3
- Creating user ownership of the R&D process and its outputs, requires early and continued involvement in the entire R&D process. (Johnson et al )
Occurrence of finding within the model: Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3, Stage 4, Stage 5, Stage 6