Step 5.2

Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns (2009).

Prototyping is often presented as a universal solution to many intractable information systems project problems. Prototyping is known to offer at least three advantages (1) provide users with a concrete understanding, (2) eliminate the confusion, (3) cope with uncertainty. A possible consequence of the breakdown of prototyping is the direct reversal of these advantages. Thus broken prototyping projects may be evidenced by (1) user misunderstandings, (2) confusion over the process and the product, and (3) rising uncertainty. Direct management of these factors can help recover from prototyping breakdown. Based on an analysis of a prototyping project case from the health-care sector we derived a 3-by-3 framework of coping strategies for managing prototyping breakdowns; the framework was based on the theory of the iron triangle for project management. We found all the coping strategies to be applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led to a partial recovery of the project but the recovery emerged not from a single strategy, but from an interdependent and interactive process of using several coping strategies in a sequence.

https://www.computer.org/csdl/proceedings/hicss/2009/3450/00/09-09-06.pdf

A Model-Based Framework to Overlap Product Development Activities (1997)

In summary, few analytical methods exist to model and analyze the product development process. Existing project management tools are inadequate because product development processes are inherently iterative, and information in product development processes can be profitably exchanged multiple times in preliminary form. This paper contributes to the research on the management of the design process by (i) highlighting the limits to concurrency and developing a simple model of the overlapped development process, (ii) presenting a conceptual framework to facilitate managerial decision-making about overlapping a currently sequential process, and (iii) illustrating both the model and the framework with industrial applications thereby demonstrating their potential value. (p. 451).

http://web.mit.edu/eppinger/www/pdf/Krishnan_MS1997.pdf

Prototyping Framework:  A guide to prototyping new ideas. (2014)

Iterate as you Prototype:  Why? During the Live Prototyping you should still be able to quickly redesign and improve existing prototypes based on peoples’ feedback and your observations. How? Consider what is the best way to gain feedback; ask for people’s verbal feedback, watch and observe people using the prototypes (often, what they say, think or do, is different from how they actually interact). Take the key insights from the feedback and think about ways to redesign the product/service touch-point accordingly.  (p. 40).

http://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/prototyping_framework.pdf

Shared Decision Making:  Examining key elements and barriers to adoption into routine clinical practice. (2013)

Although obstacles continue to slow the scaling up of shared decision making across the health care continuum, shared decision making is making progress in the health care systems of industrialized countries. This is a positive development for patients’ well-being, and also a promising method for translating evidence into clinical decisions. If patients are engaged more effectively in decision making about their health, all stakeholders stand to benefit.  Health policies that promote additional research into shared decision making and its adoption throughout health care systems will play an important role in improving the quality and reducing the cost of health care across the board.

Friedberg MW, Van Busum K, Wexler R, Bowen M, Schneider EC . A demonstration of shared decision making in primary care highlights barriers to adoption and potential remedies. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32(2):268–275.  http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/32/2/276.full