Step 7.4

Develop production and capacity plan.

Navigate Findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Neglecting Risk Management: To speed development time and save money, the project skipped the pilot demonstration phase of a new manufacturing process, with production designs derived from bench demonstrations, and concepts based on computer simulations only.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Carriers

Coordination between product development teams and functional departments is linked to greater product success at market.
Case-based research
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Models

Design manufacturing integration is positively associated with NPD project efficiency, if product design and manufacturing personnel act in truly cooperative ways, overall project efficiency should increase.
Survey of 137 completed NPD projects. The degree of design and manufacturing integration significantly differed across the project groups in the expected direction.
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Methods

By using templates, the time required for new product development is drastically reduced. At the same time incorporating computer-aided process planning into the system gives the designer a better understanding of the cost implications of the modified design with respect to manufacturing. The major challenge in implementing of such system is that any changes in the manufacturing facility have to be incorporated in the process plans stored. This can be a tedious job but can be overcome by using hybrid process planning approach instead of variant based approach.
Author experience
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Manufacturing Facilities Design — buildings to house and equipment to conduct manufacturing process. The design includes the following considerations: — Type of equipment; — Power rating of equipment; — Number of machines required; — Manufacturing facilities layout.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
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Manufacturing processes can be categorized into three classes: 1) Primary — the main shape generating processes (cast, forge, mold). 2) Secondary — refine the part's features or form (machine, grind, broach). 3) Tertiary — finishing processes such as surface and heat treatments that typically affect only one attribute of the product.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
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Once the product design is finalized, its cost structure determined and future demand forecasted, production manufacturing needs must be planned and build. The size, selection of equipment, material routing characteristics etc., of these facilities are largely dictated by the demand forecast. Over production increases inventory carrying costs, while under production fails to fill orders.
Authors experience in industrial engineering, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and as Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
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Process planning task involves the development of a set of work instructions used for part transformation from its initial to final form. In the proposed system, the process plan module provides detailed information and description of manufacturing processes and machine tools required. The information includes: list of required machines; specific cutting energy for the work material; standard set-up and tear down times; number of tools required; and cost per hour of operation. A search heuristic is developed for the selection of appropriate process plan. If a process plan is not found in the database, a new process plan will be generated based on the defined design features, dimensions and required tolerance for finished product. The information from the developed process plan is used to calculate the manufacturing time and cost.
Author developed template
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Tips

Align product development with manufacturing capabilities, to ensure that any process issues or infrastructure upgrades are planned and implemented on a timetable appropriate for market launch.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Construct a Critical Path Analysis which specifies a schedule of events and dates with required timing for all production and marketing activities to be completed by launch.
Experiential
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The NPD scale-up and validation stages cannot be omitted to save time or money, particularly when revisions are made mid-project. It is a gamble that usually ends up costing more of both.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Theory of Performance Frontiers suggests that NPD project efficiency is improved through the implementation of changes to project execution processes. Such process changes might apply new technologies, operating procedures, organizational structures, or other practices that remove waste (inefficiency) from design and development activities.
Survey of 137 completed NPD projects. Authors interpretation of theory of performance frontiers as it relates to NPD
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Secondary findings

Methods

An interesting modification to concurrent engineering is the agile concurrent engineering (ACE) methodology. Its main characteristics are full utilization of resources through resource sharing, agile teams suited for medium or small-sized firms and minimum organization restructuring. In this methodology, a quantitative modeling tool for the concurrent engineering process was developed which describes the mini-circulations and resource sharing within the system. This tool (ESHLEP-N) was a high-level evaluation, stochastic Petri-net model.
Source: Yan and Jiang (1999). In: Kamrani, A., & Vijayan, A. (2006)

Coordination in this sense refers to the problem of ensuring that scarce development resources are allocated efficiently to the different tasks that must be accomplished, that task deadlines are set appropriately and communicated clearly, and that the sequence of planned activities leads to a total project duration that approaches the minimum possible. In the literature on project management, these problems are typically addressed in terms of PERT charts and 'critical path analysis'
Source: Eppen, Gould, and Schmidt (1993). In: Hoopes, D.G., & Postrel, S. (1999)

Use of methods such as design for manufacturing (DFM) to encourage the integration of product and process design decisions has been associated with lower product costs and better conformance quality.
Source: Youssef (1994), Swink (2002), Sanchez and Perez, (2003). In: Swink, M., Talluri, S., & Pandejpong, T. (2006)