Step 4.2

Layout proposed engineering-based solution to problem.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Experts disagree about the basic origin of opportunities. Some believe opportunities exist “out there” waiting for discovery whereas others believe opportunities are synthesized by formulating an idea and realizing it through action.
Case study findings
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International R&D requires collaboration and sharing of tactic knowledge among sites. 
Case study findings
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Formal coordination measures can hinder innovation. For example, if headquarters dictates goals to subsidiaries with higher technological expertise.  
Case study findings
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Product newness to company decreases role flexibility for R&D group.
Correlation analyses based on Survey n=171 and Follow-up interviews n-68 with organizational managers of various groups, shows that products new to company decrease R&D Groups role in both R&D and marketing, although the reduction happens slowly and over an extended period of time.
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Carriers

Face-to-face contact helps overcome documentation constraints that might preclude a laboratory technologist or acquisition development specialist from elaborating about possible impediments, if any, to successful transition.
Interviews with senior personnel.
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Product newness to market increases role flexibility for Marketing group.
Correlation analyses based on Survey n=171 and Follow-up interviews n-68 with organizational managers of various groups, shows that products new to market increases Marketing Groups role in both marketing and R&D, and the role happens quickly in a short time frame.
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Models

Multi-site R&D mandates can be characterized based on their degree of market orientation and technology orientation. A matrix exists of: Local adaptors (high market orientation, low tech orientation), Product excellence centers (high market orientation, high technology orientation), Extended workbench (low market orientation, low technology orientation), Technology excellence center (Low market orientation, high technology orientation).
Case study findings
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Methods

Nanosynthesis is bottom-up development and nanomachining is top-down technology.
Case-based research
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By using templates, the time required for new product development is drastically reduced. At the same time incorporating computer-aided process planning into the system gives the designer a better understanding of the cost implications of the modified design with respect to manufacturing. The major challenge in implementing of such system is that any changes in the manufacturing facility have to be incorporated in the process plans stored. This can be a tedious job but can be overcome by using hybrid process planning approach instead of variant based approach.
Author experience
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Distribution of collaboration during Concept Generation stage was manufacturer involvement (94%), user involvement (71%) and third-party involvement (59%).
Case study of seventeen medical equipment innovations marketed by 13 Dutch firms.
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Failure Knowledge Network (FKN) — captures and inter-relates mechanical product quality knowledge from five areas: (i) the connection between failures and product functions, (ii) the relationship between failures and product components, (iii) the correlation between failures and organizations, (iv) the association between failures and product processes, and (v) the conjunction among different failures. FKN information is represented in a four-dimensional matrix that includes components, functions, processes and organization. Each element in the matrix is a failure scenario and represents the related failures within the corresponding dimensions. Conventional factors of failures are embodied in the FKN representation. They include event, detection, effect, severity, solution weight, cause, monitor, reappearance, operation, efficiency and precaution. The indexes of each factor are provided by subject matter experts and are set in accordance with the correlation between corresponding characteristics and failures
Failure knowledge based decision-making in product quality.
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New products must engage consumer interest, so being unique in the sense of new or novel is insufficient. Beyond that, companies must strive for uniqueness in a form that is relevant to the target audience, that has utility in the context of their needs. Doing so generates interest among the target audience. It provides four related benefits: 1) Increased interest in the offering from the related field or industry; 2) Easier to create effective and focused advertising; 3) Usually lower cannibalization -- that is the company is less likely to introduce internally competing products since this one is focused on the target audience; 4) The product offering is more believable to the target audience because it is presented in terms and a context they understand.
Experience as head of new product development and innovation in a corporation.
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Product quality-related decision-making using the Failure Knowledge Network (FKN) — The first step of the decision-making process is the identification of related failures and characteristics. The second step is determination of the important characteristics of the clusters. Next, there is a comparison between the characteristics of each target. Finally, the interdependent priorities of the characteristics are determined by analyzing dependencies among the targets and characteristics.
Failure knowledge based decision-making in product quality.
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Tips

The outlined dimensions of user competence need to be differentiated according to the different stages of NPD in which the consumers are involved, such as Idea Generation activity, versus Design activity, versus Prototype testing activity.
Literature review and case study.
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Secondary findings

Methods

Beta testing — Co-construction in which customers are actively involved in design.
Source: Udwadia & Kumar (1991). In: Dolan, RJ & Matthews, JM (1993)

Measures

Newprod — an empirical screening tool for new product concepts — involving market need, technological compatibility and product superiority.
Source: Cooper (1980). In: Calantone, R.J., diBenedetto, C.A. (1988)

Tips

Lead Users — Certain users can take on a role as designers to interact with product developers within the company. Lead users are those whose present needs become widespread in a market months or years ahead. Since lead users are familiar with conditions that lie in the future for most others, they can serve as a needs-forecasting laboratory for market research.
Source: von Hippel (2005). In: Grunert, K.G. et al (2008)