Step 4.1

Identify and approach key Co-Development partners, again under signed Non-Disclosure Agreements. Ask them to answer the key question from Step 1.3: Why does envisioned solution to problem not yet exist?

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

After a time, exploratory capability diminishes within an relationship, thus affecting market performance.
Case study findings
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Transaction cost describes the hazards of collaboration, vulnerabilities like opportunistic behavior or knowledge leaks. 
Literature review findings
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Grant systems often target previous recipients or socially connected recipients whose activities may be influenced by previous relationships or expectations. 
Case study findings
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Some employees resist encouragement from human resources to share knowledge across inter-departmental boundaries.
Postmarket questionnaire results
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Adopting new technologies is presumed to be a logical decision; however individual users determine for themselves the costs and benefits of investing in new tech, including their own natural resistance to change. If the return on investment doesn’t support the change, not adopting new tech is the rational choice for the user.
Case study findings
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Private companies seldom disclose their development practices to protect intellectual property. 
Case study findings
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Some employees resist encouragement from human resources to share knowledge across inter-departmental boundaries.
Postmarket questionnaire results
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Distance inhibits KT, and that distance may come in the form of cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical differences.
Literature review findings
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Interviewees often stated social aspects of meetings were positively affected by the presence of women however in other questions their presence is not perceived as essential content-wise. This illustrates an unconscious inability to link the quality of social processes to the outcome of the project.
Study findings
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Platformed products by nature aggregate towards the most prevalent user needs. This may cause smaller groups’ needs to go unaddressed or underserved.
Case study analysis
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Mutual trust for trusts sake cannot be established without effort and time. The conditions necessary for information sharing must be built incrementally. The phases of trust between agencies are economy-based, information-based (behaviors are reasonably predictable), and lastly identification based trust. 
Survey findings
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Novel management changes in lieu of legal intellectual property protections are correlated with fewer patents. Techniques like strategy re-alignment and changing organizational structure are not recommended as means to increase patenting.
Questionnaire findings
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Fear of unintended knowledge spillovers motivates firms to guard all aspects of a discovery and patent protectively.
Questionnaire findings
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International R&D requires collaboration and sharing of tactic knowledge among sites. 
Case study findings
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Formal coordination measures can hinder innovation. For example, if headquarters dictates goals to subsidiaries with higher technological expertise.  
Case study findings
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Lower incentives for universities to form relationships with small or medium sized enterprises compared to larger firms.
Author reasons that Small and Medium Sized Enterprises frequently do not have adequate personnel or financial resources to invest in a university relationship.
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Outsourcing expertise in NPD is difficult to implement in two ways. First, the danger of hollowing out the internal knowledge base so that the organization loses the core competence in key areas. Second, the firm loses the ability to integrate expertise from within the firm and across the supply chain. The firm may realize short-term cost savings but risks losing core competence to external sources.
Corporate case study.
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Carriers

Relationships between incubators and universities can be a channel for knowledge sharing and technology transfer. 
Case study findings
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Removing disincentives and encouraging academic freedom fosters involvement from university inventors.
Case-based research
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There is a positive correlation between productive collaborations and small group size, access to complementary technical skills, stable research sponsorship, access to extramural resources and leadership.
Case-based research
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Technological commitment is captured by the extent to which a focal firm commits to investing its technology resources in an ITA to maintain the relationship.
Modeling experiment
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Trust building and the social exchange theory are well recognized norms to facilitate and maintain collaborative relationships. 
Literature review findings
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Knowledge sharing networks can attract participants for reasons other than the explicit mission of the project:

  • In response to being personally invited
  • To seek funding opportunities
  • For access to other facilities and equipment
  • To support graduate students
  • To recruit more researchers
  • To disseminate best practices
  • To support the projects’ cause for ideological reasons
  • To gain individual knowledge and experience

Survey findings
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Grants stimulate farmers to experiment with new practices, engage in research, and utilize business development services. Otherwise they may be reluctant to adopt change.  Case study findings
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Vouchers can specify activities that foster institutional cooperation like knowledge development/sharing or business development. This stimulates growth in the supporting organizations, which benefits both the users and service providers.  
Case study findings
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Being cognizant of gender practicing (actions taken moment to moment) in context of gender practices (existing cultural norms) enables actors to reproduce or challenge unequal practices.
Study findings
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Four main project characteristics influence an alliance:

  • Commitment - willingness to invest money, time, or other resources into the collaboration
  • Intellectual property management – managing ownership of new ideas and control over their dissemination
  • Coordination –communicated interdependence between parties
  • Communication processes – exchange of ideas and information among individuals and organizations

Project data analysis 
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Firms and government agencies rely on social scientists as consultants to ground business strategies and for managing the innovation process.  
Findings of data analysis
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Sharing knowledge among researchers and practitioners offers many benefits: producing knew knowledge, facilitating skills development, increasing collaboration, improving problem solving and sustaining competitive advantage.
Survey findings
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Discoveries are often made by problem-solving thinkers whose original area of expertise is far from the original problem.
Case study analysis
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Universities are capable of hosting basic and applied research and offering services like incubation that promote knowledge management and industrialization. 
Case-based research
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Physicians as end users can contribute meaningful information to manufacturers and regulators governing healthcare and drugs.
Case-based research
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A research project steering committee with equal representation from the research organization and key stakeholders can help with the creation of a project vision, deliberation strategies, and promotional activities. Together, members commit to a goal established by the committee and coordinate action in the direction of that goal.
Project-based learnings.
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An organization can designate Boundary Spanners — staff who establish effective communication protocols between the internal and external sources of expertise. The Boundary Spanners keep the internal units involved in the same activities as the external suppliers, by way of dry runs, shadow engineering, or patenting in the supplier's domain. Organizations gain the speed and cost efficiency of outsourcing, while maintaining and updating core competencies.
Corporate case study.
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Choose product development team members who trust, respect and are loyal to each other because this will create effective relationships and increase information flow. Also look for longevity of product developer relationships, shared common backgrounds and wider social contexts.
Survey. Positive correlations were found between effective product development relationships and trust, respect, loyalty, longevity, common backgrounds and social contexts at the .01 level.
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Independent research project advisory boards, with equal representation from community and academic institutions, can help to draw out relevant policy and practice implications of research findings.
Project-based learnings.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). As a researcher gets to know a stakeholder group, there is the potential to develop a trusting relationship, which can lead to greater openness and opportunities to better understand the issues that drive the stakeholder group and the kinds of important questions that remain unanswered and remain open to research.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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When external researchers are embedded in an organization (especially in a team-based setting), it can be extremely helpful to have an internal champion that has sufficiently senior standing and operational knowledge and is able to make commitments regarding forms of collaboration and data/resource sharing.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Firms accustomed to patent protection are less fearful of sharing relationships and more likely to engage in partnerships.
Questionnaire analysis
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Models

(2) Technological innovation systems (TIS) incorporate the actors and rules influencing the speed and direction of change in a specific technological area. The TIS approach emphasizes the interplay of all relevant actors.
Case study findings
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The outcome of this exercise is that the researchers were then able to create the ‘Interactions Model’ which maps the ‘current’ situation of interactions or issues pertinent to the Telco–Distributor and Comtic–Supplier interface. Findings from the ‘Interactions Model’ emphasize the sensitivity of the interface and the key role which the partners (distributors and suppliers) have come to play in an extended enterprise.
The data has been collected by the researcher from within the company from a wide variety of sources ranging from NPD documentation, archival records and interviews with various people working on the R&D process.
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Methods

Incubators often tout networking as a major attribute because social networks are informal and valuable relationships which take time and positioning to build.  
Case study findings
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Evaluating technological innovation systems for their ability to support development and diffusion will identify factors that can hinder adaptation and market success.
Case study findings
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Complex technologies require a collaborative approach for successful innovation and diffusion. Minimizing the level of innovation system uncertainty should be a focus of collaboration to identify needs, demonstrate the value of technologies, and work together to design and deliver post-purchase support. 
Case study findings
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Select research partners with planned means of knowledge transfer in mind, as distance complicates translating knowledge which is soft, contextual, cultural etc.
Literature review findings
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Employ metaroutines externally to identify sources of new knowledge. These subtasks include mining literature, learning from external partners, and initiating informal interactions with others. 
Case study analysis
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Incubators can be categorized into classifications. Classify potential incubators by different elements to better compare them: private/public, by services offered, by value specialty, or by industry. 
Case study findings
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Use various product simulation conditions to optimize products for widespread use. 
Case-based research
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Assigning broad tasks, as opposed to specialized tasks does not reduce development time significantly.
Meta analysis of 4 studies
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Compose an efficient project team; make sure that it is cross functional, includes gatekeepers, and its members have moderate tenure, i.e., have neither a too short nor too long a history together. This is to ensure increased information sharing and flow both internally and externally.
Authors report significant and robust link [link 1] between this method and product development speed in the integrated model. Actual results not reported. Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Dougherty, 1992; Zirger & Maidique, 1990; Allen, 1971, 1977.
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Consider a firm's strategic approach to information when selecting a partner: Highly innovative firms use information conceptually to to enhance both new product performance and new product creativity outcomes. More conservative firms relying on incremental improvements enhance both product performance and outcomes through incremental use of information. Firms that innovate to some degree while protecting existing product markets, benefit from conceptual use but detract from performance and outcomes when applying information instrumentally.
Survey of 150 software development firms.
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Create and maintain high levels of integration between Marketing and Research & Development functions and product prototype development, product launch and cycle times will all have increased proficiency. Market forecast accuracy and technological core competency fit will also be improved with function integration. Be sure to implement integration at step 4.1.
Survey. A multiple regression analysis revealed significance between integration and: product prototype development proficiency (F=70.80); product launch proficiency (F=122.74); product development cycle time (F=13.84), market forecast accuracy (F=75.65); and technological core competency fit (F=39.64), all interactions significant at the p<.001 level.
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Facilitate group process; Build team cohesion by encouraging frequency of Internal and external communication by team members in order to increase amount of information and ensure fast product development
Authors report significant and robust link [link 2] in the integrated model, between this method and product development speed and subsequently, financial success. Actual results not reported.
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Organizations should carefully study prospective suppliers to identify an ideal candidate. Increasing a buyer's knowledge of a supplier leads to higher levels of trust, which in turn lead to more information sharing and involvement. Some criteria to consider include ability to achieve goals, ramp-up abilities, innovation and technical expertise, training requirements, and resource commitment from top management.
Survey of 84 companies.
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Process and product improvement resulting from the use of university-based industrial extension services help to: maintain a steady flow of income into a region from non-local sources, retain local industrial jobs, promote the use of best practices in manufacturing, enhance the credibility of local organizations via certifications such as ISO and TQM.
Survey data.
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Six general themes for NPD best practice are described: (1) Instill a strategic, long-term orientation toward NPD. (2) Have a formal portfolio management process. (3) Implement a formal NPD process supported by a discipline to adhere to this process. (4) Conduct market research proactively. (5) Use cross-functional teams. (6) Utilize standardized criteria and metrics.
Generated from published studies on benchmarking data.
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Technology Acquisition — Companies have finite resources and cannot afford to pursue all technologies in-house. Hence, organizations face the dilemma of deciding whether to develop technologies internally or to acquire them from a third-party. Further, as technologies become more complex, acquisition is increasingly regarded as a principle path for delivering new solutions. Technology acquisition helps bridge the technology gap in areas of expertise where the organization lags behind.
Literature review, author's industry experience with case study.
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The decision to engage in inter-organizational relationships should balance the advantages of accessing new knowledge, new opportunities, and sharing of risk and cost, against the potential problems of losing control over knowledge involuntarily.
Analysis of survey data from 557 firms across five industries in Europe.
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The primary drivers of performance appear to be: 1. Cross-functional Involvement and good interfacing between those involved in undertaking NPD. 2. Developing a profile of defined product/market arenas to direct new product ideation and investment in R&D and marketing capabilities. 3. Provision of adequate resources for undertaking NPD. 4. Leadership and organization of projects including the use of product champions and enabling managers the flexibility to make decisions relating to NPD activities. 5. A strong market orientation that links both customer and competitor insights into the NPD process for improved decision-making. 6. A high level of senior management involvement in order to illustrate to employees that management is committed to successful NPD outcomes. 7. Undertaking up-front homework including appropriate project screening and evaluation activities, concept development and testing, and preliminary market and technical testing.
Survey. Results from questionnaire analysis.
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The range of participants in R&D is broad and requires someone to oversee the integration of all the elements that constitute the innovation process. All of the external actors that create value or knowledge may join in R&D, including customers, suppliers and distributors, with all due consideration of the span of control and confidentiality issues.
Author analysis of prior literature and application within an industrial setting.
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The relationship established between academia and industry determines the flow of benefits and incentives. For example, Research Partnership relationships are cooperative R&D activities with high academic and industry incentives, but less focus on specific deliverables. In contrast, Research Service relationships (i.e., contract research or consulting), have lower academic incentives but tend to focus on specific deliverables (see Table 1).
Review of 49 articles identified through search of literature from 1990 to present using thirty key terms.
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Voice of the Customer Information as a Best Practice for the NPD process: 1) Market and buyer behavior studies are a valuable source of information for planning the market launch. 2) Market research as a tool to help define the product. 3) The customer or user ought to be an integral part of the Development process. 4) Identification of customers or users real or un-articulated needs and their problems, is considered fundamental to voice-of-the-customer research, and should be a key input to product design. 5) Working with highly innovative users or customers.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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When seeking partners consider — in order — technological alignment (technical ability, technical resource and market knowledge complementarity, and overlapping knowledge bases); strategic alignment (motivation correspondence and goal correspondence); and relational alignment (compatible cultures, propensity to change, and long-term orientation).
Narrative analysis of case studies and literature review.
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Tips

Social capital refers to business partnerships and open dialogues. These relationships naturally facilitate collaboration and knowledge transfer. 
Case study findings
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When assigning roles, be cognizant of who is expected to “pour the coffee” i.e. give tours, take notes, give up a seat at the table, make small talk, plan parties, and handle other such social or domestic office labor. Assign these tasks equally by job role and be mindful not to reproduce unequal gender practices.
Study findings
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Transactional governance signified by legally binding terms is more prudent for short term projects than relational governance, which requires time to produce trust-based working relationships. 
Survey findings 
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Researchers take a professional risk by leaving academia to work in the private sector. Using researchers as consultants provides more academic freedom and better positions them to return to or stay within academia, making collaboration a more attractive prospect.
Findings of data analysis
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Physical proximity to an incubator after graduation has the added benefit of continued access to networks formed during incubation.
Case study findings
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A collaborative work environment is positively associated with NPD project efficiency. Collocation of project members reduces the physical distances between them. The removal of distance as a barrier should improve overall project efficiency, as information transactions and other communications are made easier.
Survey of 137 completed NPD projects. Managers’ perceptions of a collaborative environment were significantly higher on average for efficient projects as opposed to Inefficient projects, supporting one hypothesis.
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Another primary contributor to product success is strategic focus. Firms should choose projects that build upon the firm's existing technological, marketing, and organizational competencies. When new ventures are undertaken, the firm must consider and perhaps minimize where possible one or more dimensions of newness.
Survey of 172 electronics products
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Assemble cross-functional teams consisting of key players within the company. Make it clear to the entire organization that these individuals are assigned to the project and the entire team is accountable for the end results.
Authors' research experience. More high productivity companies use these practices than low productivity companies.
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Effectively reviewing information from past new product development projects while integrating marketing and research and development will significantly influence product launch proficiency, design change frequency and technological core competency fit.
Survey. Significant interaction for product launch proficiency (F=4.49, p<.05), design change frequency (F=4.32, p<.05) and technological core competency fit (F=5.22, p<.05).
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High quality teams lead to higher new product success. They should include a team leader dedicated to a single project and frequent communication between members. Decisions made by people outside of the team should be made quickly and efficiently.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Include personnel from manufacturing in visits with customers to give customers confidence that the product will meet their needs.
Interviews with four high-tech firms.
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Involve functional managers within new product development projects, especially if your company is smaller.
Survey. Companies who used the matrix form or functional type of project organization found the use of functional managers to be positive or inconsequential.
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Involvement of customers with strong past ties will result in the development of products with higher competitive performance than those that involve customers with no or few past ties. However, this practice is most effective when developing incremental products, rather than highly innovative products.
Survey of 137 new product development projects.
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Managerial excellence is critical to product success. Products are more likely to be successful if they are planned and implemented well. Project planning should include all phases of the development process; research, development, engineering, manufacturing, and market introduction. Development does not have to be a linear process. The process should be regularly and formally monitored throughout the life of the project.
Survey of 172 electronics products.
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Matching new product development tasks to employee interests and strengths helps to ensure that those tasks will be appropriately handled. Employees who possess traits associated with inventors thrive in R&D environments; those who act as champions do well during the opportunity recognition phase; those who are project implementers are best placed in project execution roles; while serial innovators do well throughout the entire process.
Survey data.
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Participate in a Research Center within a University to help find new ideas, gain access to scientists and to recruit new graduate students.
The longitudinal evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers Programs found both Universities and Industries to be satisfied with the Centers and felt their expectations were being met.
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Project performance will increase for teams that have a heavyweight leader with a great deal of organizational influence.
Meta analysis of 4 studies
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Research execution: Establish a stakeholder-representative Advisory Committee to act as project champions and to receive timely project updates and provide authoritative advice regarding project productivity, risk and budget.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Researchers are usually required to obtain advance approval from independent ethics boards prior to engaging in research that involves human subjects. Knowledge users (stakeholder groups) are often unfamiliar with requirements associated with informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, data access and data management. Ensure these requirements and their implications for participation, process and practice are understood at the beginning of the project.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). To avoid interruptions that could result from the departure of specific stakeholder group members, researchers should establish group- or institutional-level linkages.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Shared knowledge was clearly valuable on the margin, and the degree of shared knowledge seemed, based on qualitative analysis of the interview data, to be closely related to the intensity of integrating practices such as cross functional meetings, early development of specifications, and participation by boundary spanning individuals. It thus seems more than plausible that integrating practices improved performance by increasing the degree of shared knowledge about problem constraints, thereby reducing the incidence of glitches.
Case Study. Data analysis of company's projects.
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To improve short-term competitive performance of products in the marketplace, projects to develop incremental new products should involve homogeneous groups of customers.
Survey of 137 product development projects.
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Use information technology to maintain an electronic connection to customers and external partners in order to make design decisions faster.
Survey of 214 manufacturing firms
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Use of cross functional teams decreases development time, but does not necessarily impact goal failure rates.
Meta analysis of 5 studies
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Use the Internet to locate suppliers and get price quotes quickly.
Experiential. Author provides an example of a company who saved much time by finding a supplier online.
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Utilization of industrial extension service providers to facilitate process improvement can lead to a reduction in materials waste and improved return on investment.
Survey. Significant relationship between ROI and the estimated savings from reduced waste. r = 0.662, p= 0.002.
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Utilization of industrial extension service providers to facilitate product improvement can result in faster rates of sales growth and increased job retention.
Survey data.
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When conducting a complex new product development project, long term and requiring basic research, involving external resources appears to improve the teams’ ability to stay on track with their time budgets. However, if the project is of low complexity, short term projects for one client, then utilizing external resources becomes a disadvantage.
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Secondary findings

Barriers

Communication problems can be the most problematic barrier to integration between research and development and marketing.
Source: In: Moenaert, R. K. & Souder, W. E. (1990)

Despite an abundance of academic and scientific expertise, biotechnology firms suffer from a lack of management skill and knowledge. This lack of skills and knowledge impacts on the firm’s ability to manage NPD as well as to secure the funding required for sustained performance.
Source: Ernst_&_Young (2001), Department of Industry Science and Resources and Ernst & Young (1999). In: Frahm, J., Ireland, D.C., & Hine, D. (2007)

Differences in organizational cultures, mindsets, expectations, and behavior. Knowledge spillover may result when dealing with proprietary information in collaborations.
Source: Hanson & Lackman, 1998; Tse, Francis & Walls, 1994; Yan, Luo, & Child, 2000. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Carriers

A Learning Alliance — The acquisition and exploitation of knowledge generated by others as a means to speed a firm's development capabilities, while minimizing the technological risk. Learning alliances are a a key factor in offering technology-based solutions. They are established to access the relevant skills and capabilities of the alliance partner — their know-how — which is difficult to communicate and capture through standard market mechanisms.
Source: Grant and Baden-Fuller (2004). In: Canez, L., L Puig, R. Quintero, M. Garfias (2007)

The existence of an overarching relationship (historical or longstanding) between a researcher and relevant decision makers (knowledge users), where research utilization is only one activity in the larger, ongoing relationship, can be important for the utilization of research findings.
Source: Goering (2003); Mohrman (2001); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2002); Golden-Biddle (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

To mitigate power inequalities and transcend the different cognitive and cultural worlds of participating stakeholders, an independent facilitator should guide the process and fulfill an intermediary role as a knowledge broker.
Source: Sperling & Ashby (2001); Hargadon (2002). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Methods

Concurrent engineering (CE) suggests an 'integrated' design approach, that is, a co-ordinated effort of the various competencies and organizational functions involved in the development of new products. The main idea of concurrent engineering is to integrate all the functions involved in the project, including external ones, that is, suppliers and customers. The most widespread CE tools and techniques are: 1. Reduction of the number of parts, by product Modularization, Standardization of parts and project Simplification; 2. Manufacturability and assemblability, achieved using techniques such as design for manufacturing (DFM) and design for assembly (DFA); 3. Project schedule and development time reduction, where tools such as work breakdown structure (WBS) and overlapping (OL) can be helpful; 4. Product assessment, using failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) for example; 5. Customer satisfaction, evaluated by value analysis and engineering( VA/VE) tools.
Source: De Toni, A., Nassimbeni, G. & Tonchia, S. (1999). In: De Toni, A., & Nassimbeni, G. (2001)

Degree of CFI ( interaction, communication, info-sharing, coordination) is key driver of new product success
Source: Griffin and Hauser, 1992, 1996; Gupta, Raj and Wilemon, 1986. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Firms seek integration with external constituents to fill technical or market-based competency gaps.
Source: McDermott & O'Connor (2002). In: Koufteros, X., Vonderembse, M. & Jayaram, J. (2005)

For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process.
Source: Douthwaite et al (2001). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Four types of firm strategies toward new products: 1) Prospectors value being first to market with many innovative products; 2) Analyzers carefully protect existing markets while capitalizing on potentially profitable emerging markets; 3) Defenders focus on protecting narrowly defined and existing markets and only innovative in response to threats; 4) Reactors lack any clear strategic orientation which may imperil their long-term survival.
Source: Miles & Snow (1978). In: Citrin, A.V., Lee, R.P., & McCullough, J. (2007)

In order to exchange information externally and internally for better NPD, a firm requires employees to be spanning the boundaries of the firm to exchange information with other organizations.
Source: Ancona, D. & Caldwell, D. (1992). In: Frahm, J., Ireland, D.C., & Hine, D. (2007)

Table 1 Studies on Collaborative NPD lists 12 studies related to co-development and collaboration in new product development.
Source: See table 1. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

The traditional pattern of a large, vertically integrated business, is being replaced by one consisting of complex networks of collaborating organizations and chains of buyers and suppliers.
Source: Roy and Potter (1996). In: Humphreys, P., Huang, G., Cadden, T. (2005)

Tips

As the number of years a group has been together increases, productivity decreases. Upper management can improve the situation by ensuring that an appropriate leader is heading the group.
Source: Katz, R., & Allen, T. J., 1982. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Based on empirical data collected from 170 purchasing managers, Dickson identified quality, cost and delivery performance history as the three most important criteria in supplier selection.
Source: Dickinson, G. W. (1966). In: De Toni, A., & Nassimbeni, G. (2001)

Choose product development team members who had good personal relationships, as they have been linked to successful product development. Relationships that have lasted a long time and have experience with many project cycles and changes in the organizational structure will be most effective.
Source: Brookes et al. (2001), Smart et al. (2002), Morton et al. (2002). In: Morton, S. C., Brookes, N. J., Dainty, A. R. J., Blackhouse, C. J. & Burns, N. D. (2006)

Consideration of quality /features/benefits of products
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Creative tensions in groups can help to improve performance by providing security and stability while also offering challenges. Further, a mix of technical backgrounds, age, experience, and values can help improve group productivity.
Source: Kuhn, T. S., 1963. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Find and recruit well qualified staff online.
Source: Jones, S. (2001). In: Ozer, M. (2003)

One of the major reasons that concurrent engineering has gained broad acceptance is its impact on time. CE will get the manufacturing and marketing departments involved early in the development process. This will enable these departments to influence the design and obtain a more cost effective and high quality products. CE takes advantage of the latest advances in computer and information technologies to develop libraries with comprehensive accumulations of product and process designs. Therefore, knowledge gained during the development of one product is captured and then passed on to subsequent product developments as templates.
Source: Salomone (1995), Kamrani and Salhieh (2002). In: Kamrani, A., & Vijayan, A. (2006)

Open science relationships are far more relevant to industrial R&D laboratories, than are the commercial activities of universities, such as licensing or cooperative ventures.
Source: Cohen et al (2002). In: Perkman, Markus & Walsh, Kathryn (2007)

Organizational strength (strategy, skills, culture) as driver of new product success
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Significant innovations are likely to emerge from a combination of complimentary skills
Source: Glaister, 1996. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

To achieve the highest level of technical excellence, technical groups should be formed based on individual's areas of expertise.
Source: Marquis, D. G., Straight, D. L., 1965. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Use integration techniques such as multidisciplinary groups, business boards, interdepartmental representatives, job rotation and integrator persons to promote a successful marketing and research and development relationship.
Source: . In: Moenaert, R. K. & Souder, W. E. (1990)