Step KTA 6.E

Monitor invention use.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

There may be unintended consequences associated with the application of research knowledge. They may unfold with a ripple effect, affecting other processes and outcomes. Sustained monitoring of the use of the research knowledge may help to bring potential adverse consequences to light.
Application of Graham’s Knowledge-to-Action Process model in occupational therapy.
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Carriers

When convening an interactive forum (a knowledge translation event that brings researchers and knowledge users together to jointly interpret research findings) it may be important for ongoing relationship building to determine whether stakeholders have an expectation that follow-up activities will be scheduled by the researcher.
Literature review and single case study.
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Methods

Action Cycle within the KTA Model — The fifth step involves monitoring knowledge adoption and use. There are three types of knowledge use: 1) Conceptual use involving changing the users level of knowledge, understanding or attitudes; 2) Instrumental use where direct changes in behavior or practice occur; 3) Strategic use — where the knowledge is manipulated and applied to achieve unintended results.
Summary of the Knowledge To Action Model and its application to knowledge translation.
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Identify a problem that needs addressing; Identify the need for change; Identify change agents (i.e., the appropriate actors to bring about the change); Identify target audience; Assess barriers to using the knowledge; Review evidence and literature or develop or adapt innovation; Select and tailor interventions to promote the use of the knowledge; Link to appropriate individuals or groups who have vested interests in the project; Implement; Evaluate; Develop a plan to evaluate use of the knowledge; Pilot test; Evaluate process; Evaluate outcomes; Maintain change or sustain ongoing knowledge use.
Results from a knowledge synthesis
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Tips

Knowledge users can help researchers to better understand the full impact of the translated knowledge by explicitly communicating how they used the knowledge. Knowledge is often applied in innovative ways the researcher had not anticipated.
Case study.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). For multi-year research projects, researchers can benefit from convening regular meetings or workshops that allow stakeholders to learn about the progress of the project, exchange ideas, and discuss and resolve any new or emerging issues.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Secondary findings

Carriers

Participation of research project-based policy entrepreneurs in public policy networks can strengthen the linkages and exchanges between researchers and policy makers.They provide awareness of research and initiatives and facilitate social learning.
Source: Reinicke (1999, 2000); Kingdon (1984). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Tips

When designing a knowledge translation communication strategy, researchers should consider how they will monitor progress, obtain feedback, and evaluate success.
Source: Yuan (2010); CRD (1994, 2009); Harmsworth (2001); Herie (2002); Lavis (2003); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2004); European Commission (2004); Carpenter (2005); Zarinpoush (2007). In: Wilson, P.M., Petticrew, M., Calnan, M. W. & Nazareth, I. (2010)