Step 3.9

Conclusions — evaluate discovery state knowledge in light of proposed solution to problem. Before proceeding to Decision Gate 3, ensure project team has obtained all fundamental science and engineering knowledge required to successfully accomplish the project's goals. Reserve the option to return to Stage 3 if new requirements for Conceptual Discoveries arise during subsequent Stages.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Private companies seldom disclose their development practices to protect intellectual property. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Reporting financial outcomes only presents an incomplete representation of success or failure of a whole project or product.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

Research collaborations produce a great volume of data, which must be sifted for valuable information. Knowledge gleaned from this data must be organized and made available for future use.
Literature review and case study.
(View full citation)

Methods

New technologies need to be screened both for market value as well as for the presence of substitute technologies. Consider the desired product performance goals rather than focusing on a specific solution, to ensure all enabling technology options are considered. It is not always necessary to invent a solution, as one may exist in another industry.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

Carriers

Discoveries are often made by problem-solving thinkers whose original area of expertise is far from the original problem.
Case study analysis
(View full citation)

Heterogeneous knowledge among partners produces more new, novel ideas and radical progress than redundant areas of expertise.
Case study analysis
(View full citation)

Increasing worker autonomy increases knowledge sharing.  
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Using analogies to describe problems, solutions, theories, etc. is an effective means to help participants from different industries understand and discuss new concepts.
Case study analysis
(View full citation)

Non-financial performance measures often correlate with financial performance. This is useful for forecasting success. Customer satisfaction ratings and website performance are such metrics.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

Linking measures to strategic initiative reduces the common measures bias in evaluating performance.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

Tips

Social capital refers to business partnerships and open dialogues. These relationships naturally facilitate collaboration and knowledge transfer.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Employees in controlled work environments generally expect external rewards for participating in KT, i.e. to receive a cash bonus or to comply with a superior’s demands. Autonomous workers are more likely to share knowledge to serve individual goals, to appear knowledgeable, or for the personal satisfaction of sharing.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Alliances involving technology acquisition must ensure they have a sound business case where the purpose of the alliance is clearly defined and any Intellectual Property (IP) issues are carefully described and discussed. IP issues are particularly important when the acquired know-how needs to be customized to the NPD context. This may create co-invention scenarios where claims and ownership can become issues.
Literature review, author's industry experience with case study.
(View full citation)

Research execution: Face-to-face engagement with stakeholders and active participation in community-based activities can be effective KT strategies.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
(View full citation)

Secondary findings

Carriers

Helping research project stakeholders by translating the research into language that is understandable, with results that are relevant and applicable may improve their investment in the research.
Source: Martens ( 2005); Lavis (2005). In: Jansson, S. M., Benoit, C., Casey, L., Phillips, R., & Burns, D. (2010)

In many cases, when researchers and knowledge users meet face-to-face to jointly interpret research results, knowledge users perceptions of the utility of that research is often increased.
Source: Mohrman (2001); Rynes (2001); Huberman (1994); Walter (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Methods

For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process.
Source: Douthwaite et al (2001). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)