Step 3.3

Select appropriate research design (i.e., systematic or scoping review, action research, grounded theory, clinical research), for translating and/or generating knowledge as required.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Data collection methods affect the quantity and quality of feedback. For example, less tech savvy patients interact less with touch screens or tablets. 
Case study findings
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Junior faculty is generally with more time-consuming support tasks, particularly in the US where the probationary period to attain tenure is significantly longer. “Role strain” inhibits individual research. 
Findings of CV analysis
Occurrences within model: NtK 3.3, 4.10
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Experts disagree about the basic origin of opportunities. Some believe opportunities exist “out there” waiting for discovery whereas others believe opportunities are synthesized by formulating an idea and realizing it through action.
Case study findings
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Formal methods for coordination are controlled and scheduled activities such as meetings and routine processes like document sharing. They are signified by controls on behavior and output. 
Case study findings
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Research-based scholarly publications rarely include information that itemizes associated costs and benefits, or facilitates planning and budgeting. Other common absences of information include implementation-related factors such as the availability of practice guidelines, staffing requirements, educational prerequisites, training needs, and performance life-cycles. Researchers often have many of the answers, but journals rarely consider the information to be within their scope of coverage.
Literature review and professional reflections.
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Research-based scholarly publications rarely include information that itemizes associated costs and benefits, or facilitates planning and budgeting. Other common absences of information include implementation-related factors such as the availability of practice guidelines, staffing requirements, educational prerequisites, training needs, and performance life cycles. Researchers often have many of the answers, but journals rarely consider the information to be within their scope of coverage.
Literature review and professional reflections.
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Carriers

Heterogeneous knowledge among partners produces more new, novel ideas and radical progress than redundant areas of expertise.
Case study analysis
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Management can be vigilant about role strain and make special effort for junior researchers to have sufficient resources to perform research, share knowledge, and benefit professionally from involvement.
Findings of CV analysis
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Bibliometric searches conducted with software which identifies related ideas within the text and groups them into themes are on par with subject headings assigned by human readers.
Literature review findings
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Increasing worker autonomy increases knowledge sharing.  
Survey findings
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Coordinating certain aspects of quests for external knowledge will dramatically improve success. Those are cross-functional interfaces, participation in decision making, and job rotation.
Case study analysis
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Researchers should strive to maintain rigor in their research methods. This should enhance the outcome of the evidence vetting process.
Editorial commentary about knowledge translation.
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To maximize the utility and impact of their work, researchers should try to ensure that their single-study research design and execution is compatible with the general inclusion criteria for multi-study syntheses such as, systematic studies and meta-studies.
Editorial commentary about knowledge translation.
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Methods

Comparing patents after a partnership is a means of retroactively measuring cognitive dissonance or proximity among partners. 
Case study analysis
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Multi-site R&D mandates can be characterized based on their degree of market orientation and technology orientation. A matrix exists of: Local adaptors (high market orientation, low tech orientation), Product excellence centers (high market orientation, high technology orientation), Extended workbench (low market orientation, low technology orientation), Technology excellence center (Low market orientation, high technology orientation).
Case study findings
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According to the researcher’s guide to planning for knowledge translation there are five essential elements of knowledge translation, including: the problem (the problem or issue to be addressed by the research/knowledge), context (the circumstances surrounding the user and researcher), knowledge (properties of the pre-existing knowledge/evidence about the problem or the generation of new knowledge/evidence), intervention (specific activities designed to translate knowledge/research into action), and use (ways in which the knowledge/research is or might be used). For each element, a series of questions is provided. Each question encourages the researcher to think broadly and deeply about the knowledge translation implications. Elements and related questions are evidence-based, which adds to their credibility.
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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Embedding a researcher in the target practice setting can achieve a number of benefits. Knowledge users have an opportunity to observe how the researcher works (how they translate and apply knowledge) and not just what the researcher knows (as evidenced by the end product of their work). The knowledge is made visible and more amenable to adaptation and application.Knowledge users can also immediately see the relevance and value of the knowledge in the context of their own work.
Case study.
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Involve stakeholders in the development and execution of a comprehensive communication plan. Communication vehicles should be tailored to respective stakeholder groups (e.g., for physicians and other health professionals — private visits to clinic offices, group-based presentations; for educators, care providers, community members, end users and the media — public appearances, including information booths at local malls, storefronts and community exhibits). Other community communication vehicles include newsletters, public awareness campaigns and advertisements. Professional communication includes interactions at local conferences.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Tips

Employees in controlled work environments generally expect external rewards for participating in KT, i.e. to receive a cash bonus or to comply with a superior’s demands. Autonomous workers are more likely to share knowledge to serve individual goals, to appear knowledgeable, or for the personal satisfaction of sharing. 
Survey findings
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Using distant, not obvious analogies works better to model and simulate novel ideas or new applications of existing knowledge.
Case study analysis
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During the research planning stage, it can be very challenging to accurately estimate the amount of time that will be required for building trust and evolving shared understanding and goals, especially if there has been no prior interaction with stakeholders. There is a tendency to under-estimate time requirements, so it may be better to err on the side on overestimating requirements.
Project evaluation findings.
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Research execution: Face-to-face engagement with stakeholders and active participation in community-based activities can be effective KT strategies.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Research execution: Start with a pilot study. Test and refine the research design and content. Feedback from stakeholders is invaluable.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Researchers are usually required to obtain advance approval from independent ethics boards prior to engaging in research that involves human subjects. Knowledge users (stakeholder groups) are often unfamiliar with requirements associated with informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, data access and data management. Ensure these requirements and their implications for participation, process and practice are understood at the beginning of the project.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). For multi-year research projects, researchers can benefit from convening regular meetings or workshops that allow stakeholders to learn about the progress of the project, exchange ideas, and discuss and resolve any new or emerging issues.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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The inherently complex nature of knowledge translation implies that, to be comprehensive, there would need to be an equally complex set of knowledge translation guidelines. This is not practical for design or practice, as it could involve a significant number of permutations and combinations and could easily overwhelm a researcher — especially a novice one. One alternative is to provide a simple template that explains the essential knowledge translation guideline categories (e.g. problem statement, research context, knowledge objectives, possible research interventions, and potential knowledge uses) and associates sample questions and hypothetical examples with each category to reinforce deliberation, understanding and application.
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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Secondary findings

Barriers

An overall lack of research project resources might restrict stakeholder collaboration to superficial levels, and could limit the degree of knowledge translation and uptake.
Source: Ebata (1996). In: Jansson, S. M., Benoit, C., Casey, L., Phillips, R., & Burns, D. (2010)

Systematic reviews are considered to be a trustworthy means of examining the rigor of evidence and its readiness to be translated into practice. Although there are several systems developed to evaluate the strength of evidence, there is no agreement in the research and healthcare communities as to what level of evidence justifies action. One issue associated with systematic reviews is that they generally focus on the research context rather than the practicalities of implementation. In spite of these potential shortcomings, basing knowledge translation efforts on rigorous systematic reviews can help to reduce bias, increase accuracy and be time-effective.
Source: Bannigan (1997); Straus (2009). In: Metzler, M. J. & Metz, G. A. (2010)

Carriers

Marketing Resources, Skills & Activities: Proper execution of marketing activities is correlated to product success — with some evidence that products generated through market pull (reaction to unmet consumer need) are more successful than those generated through technology push approaches.
Source: Calantone & Cooper (1981). In: Calantone, R.J., diBenedetto, C.A. (1988)

Methods

Degree of CFI ( interaction, communication, info-sharing, coordination) is key driver of new product success
Source: Griffin and Hauser, 1992, 1996; Gupta, Raj and Wilemon, 1986. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been found to integrate KT with the innovation development and adoption process. Specifically, the PAR process enables participants to take an innovation and adapt it to their context, to engage in critical reflection to achieve this adaptation, and to work behind the scenes to encourage involvement and commitment.
Source: Waterman, et al. (2007). In: McWilliam, C. L., Kothari, A., Ward-Griffin, C., Forbes, D., Leipert, B. & South West Community Care Access Centre Home Care (2009)

Use the Design of Experiments tool to increase the probability of new product success.
Source: Griffin (1992); Hockman & Jenkins (1994); Wasserman (1993). In: Ittner, C. D. & Larcker, D. F. (1997)

Tips

Consideration of quality /features/benefits of products
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)