Step 3.1

Opportunity for KT: Identify fields of expertise — and individual experts — required to fully address scientific knowledge requirements for project. Create plan to acquire, translate, absorb and apply existing science-based knowledge within project. As required, create plan to generate required new to the world knowledge for project.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Phases of product development are difficult to plan when goals are not well-defined.
Research conclusions from conceptual framework
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Distance inhibits KT, and that distance may come in the form of cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical differences.
Literature review findings
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Organizing knowledge into a universal format for efficient transfer strips away significant meaning such as local relevance and other idiosyncrasies.
Literature review findings
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Actors with similar technological knowledge are less likely to produce novel ideas.
Literature review findings
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Associating technology with masculinity systemically excludes and stymies progress of women in technology or at least burdens them with coping with their status as an ‘other’.  
Study findings
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Pre-established networking practices rely on gendered behaviors which exclude the non-dominant gender, preventing equal opportunity or barring members from entrance altogether. 
Study findings
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The predominant opinion of gender in technology is that advancement is merit based and not influenced by gender; however interviews with team members are marked with categorical instances where gender is made relevant. Those categories are marginalizing the role of gender, referring to women’s gender, men connecting with men, and women maneuvering within the gender order.
Study findings
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Research agendas about open innovation often stay within OI and fail to leverage knowledge in other disciplines like marketing or engineering.
Literature review findings
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Future research of a technology is linked to present commercial applications, which are dependent on knowledge transfer. 
Case-based research
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Activities that may complicate team-based knowledge work include: framing the nature of the problem, scoping boundary conditions, identifying current and needed resources, establishing adequate task time frames, and clarifying roles and expected deliverables.
Case study and interviews.
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Complex knowledge processing (i.e. explorative knowledge creation and double-loop learning) may be degraded by team conflict, miscommunication or status-related barriers. One way to minimize theses interferences is to convene workshops where all team members are present and encouraged to share ideas, bridge differing perspectives, clear-up misconceptions and resolve conflicts. Strong team interdependence can neutralize status effects.
Case study and interviews.
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Failure of a research network (or project) to clearly articulate and broadly communicate its goals and objectives can impede its progress. It can also cloud stakeholder’s abilities to evaluate network (project) outcomes.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation
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Knowledge translation literacy — Policy development process — Many researchers do not understand the policy development process or how they might influence it, and may benefit from seminars that explain how government works.
Literature review and experience.
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One of the factors that can impede knowledge translation is knowledge asymmetry. As one example, the knowledge user (in need) may know more about a particular issue, while the researcher (with interest) may know more about potential solutions. The knowledge user’s limited awareness of potential solutions may make them skeptical about the researcher’s confidence in the proposed solution. The researcher may feel undervalued. One approach the knowledge user and researcher could take to bridge the gap is to invest time in building a professional relationship and establishing mutual trust.
Literature review and conceptual framework development.
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Researchers and stakeholders are usually able to quickly identify situations where rhetoric has replaced agreed upon and expected project behavior. Rhetoric often triggers mistrust and a re-evaluation of commitments in response. Consider ‘partnering’ in collaborative research as one example. Partnering with stakeholders is a relatively new trend in research. Researchers and stakeholders must be able to consistently demonstrate, through their words and actions that genuine partnering behavior will occur. This can be challenging, especially early in the project when the capabilities of the respective parties are not fully known to each other. Creating formal (e.g., joint development of deliverables) and informal (e.g., social events) opportunities for parties to interact can help to provide evidence of agreed upon behavior or provide a shared platform to challenge exceptions.
Project evaluation findings.
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Some researchers may have reservations about conducting user-driven research projects that have immediate utility. These types of projects are often difficult to develop in real-time and the results may be too proprietary or too hard to share or generalize — potentially limiting the value to the researcher.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Carriers

Relationships between incubators and universities can be a channel for knowledge sharing and technology transfer. 
Case study findings
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Heterogeneous knowledge among partners produces more new, novel ideas and radical progress than redundant areas of expertise.
Case study analysis
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Removing disincentives and encouraging academic freedom fosters involvement from university inventors.
Case-based research
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Public agencies are well positioned to organize roles to facilitate integrated design. Groups can delineate activities along the lines of “front office” and “back office”.  
Case study findings
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Healthcare providers including surgical staff (advanced users) are a group capable of making significant contributions as co-developers or innovators.
Postmarket questionnaire results
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Healthcare providers including surgical staff (advanced users) are a group capable of making significant contributions as co-developers or innovators. 
Postmarket questionnaire results
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Phases of product development are difficult to plan when goals are not well-defined.
Research conclusions from conceptual framework
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Face to face interactions are superior means of achieving tactic value such as relationship building and individual professional development. 
Literature review findings
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Firms and government agencies rely on social scientists as consultants to ground business strategies and for managing the innovation process.  
Findings of data analysis
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Discoveries are often made by problem-solving thinkers whose original area of expertise is far from the original problem.
Case study analysis
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Typically incubators cultivate specific regional attributes, be they organizational structures, operation policies, or institutional affiliations to better serve local incubatees.
Case study findings
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Incubators often tout networking as a major attribute because social networks are informal and valuable relationships which take time and positioning to build.  
Case study findings
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Incubators strive to stimulate entrepreneurship in entrepreneurs’ early phases. They provide amenities including affordable rent, networking, business and management expertise, administrative services and access to financial resources.
Case study findings
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Cooperation with outside agencies via incubators is a means to access information and resources that would be outside their means otherwise. 
Case study findings
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Universities are capable of hosting basic and applied research and offering services like incubation that promote knowledge management and industrialization. 
Case-based research
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There is a positive correlation between productive collaborations and small group size, access to complementary technical skills, stable research sponsorship, access to extramural resources and leadership. 
Case-based research
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Physicians as end users can contribute meaningful information to manufacturers and regulators governing healthcare and drugs.
Case-based research
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Businesses can collaborate with universities to enhance their current technological capabilities or to expand their subjective footprint.
Case study findings
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Innovations have three components: an innovative opportunity  consists of the following three components:(a)an economic value for someone; (b) mobilization of resources; and (c)the ability to appropriate at least some part of the economic value of the innovation, by the actor pursuing the opportunity.
Case study findings
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Hybrid coordination describes efforts with elements of both structured and informal coordination, such as structured projects with sub-tasks driven by interpersonal relationships. Case study findings
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Innovation hubs are superior to simple crowd sourcing because individuals are recognized for their existing accomplishments or roles. 
Literature review and case study.
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A research project steering committee with equal representation from the research organization and key stakeholders can help with the creation of a project vision, deliberation strategies, and promotional activities. Together, members commit to a goal established by the committee and coordinate action in the direction of that goal.
Project-based learnings.
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In research projects, effective relationship-building often plays a crucial role in adequately preparing researchers and stakeholders for joint activities such as agreeing on project deliverables, responsibilities and their execution. Relationship-building can be facilitated by open dialogue about project objectives and it can evolve through mutually agreed upon project processes and practices
Project evaluation findings.
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Independent research project advisory boards, with equal representation from community and academic institutions, can help to draw out relevant policy and practice implications of research findings.
Project-based learnings.
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Joint enterprises can strengthen the bond between researchers and practitioners, and nurture a sustainable project community. Co-location of researchers and practitioners represents one form of joint enterprise. This approach enables researchers to see how practices are conducted and hear how practices are discussed (and practitioners to see how research is conducted and hear how research is discussed). Often, the increased opportunity for informal observation and interaction nurtures an environment where co-creation and co-ownership are common outcomes.
Literature review.
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Knowledge translation literacy — Establishing relevant research questions — Researchers tend to begin by observing a broad or abstract problem and then narrowing down to a very specific question that can be answered with confidence following a scientific method. In our experience, practitioners may take the inverse approach. They encounter a very specific or practical problem, and, in the course of framing research questions, their inquiry broadens and they see a whole family of interconnected issues that impinge on the question that also need to be addressed. In both cases, the process of defining the problem and the question are learning exercises. But the processes seem to move in opposite directions, and it can be challenging to execute a delimited project that makes sense and is meaningful to everyone. Involving stakeholders can help to isolate and hone the research question. They can be helpful in identifying policy nuances, complexities, contradictions, and systemic links that needed to be taken into account for the study to be comprehensive.
Literature review and experience.
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Mutual engagement between researchers and stakeholders promotes the identification of common issue and concerns and enables them to jointly frame a project that encourages mutual commitment and seeks mutual value.
Literature review.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). As a researcher gets to know a stakeholder group, there is the potential to develop a trusting relationship, which can lead to greater openness and opportunities to better understand the issues that drive the stakeholder group and the kinds of important questions that remain unanswered and remain open to research.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers should carefully define and communicate to stakeholders what they mean by “moving research into practice.” The starting point of the spectrum is research findings that are specific to a unique set of circumstances. The endpoint of the spectrum is research findings that can be generalized across an entire system. Correctly setting stakeholder expectations is crucial.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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The inclusion of a policy entrepreneur on a research project can enhance: policy-related research focus, policy stakeholder understanding of the project and engagement in related activities, and the relevance, transferability and use of research findings by policy stakeholders.
Project-based learnings.
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When executives embed external researchers in their organizations (especially in a team-based setting), the opportunities for direct, formal and informal interaction can enhance the communication of stakeholder project needs or the implications of research findings.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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When external researchers are embedded in an organization (especially in a team-based setting), it can be extremely helpful to have an internal champion that has sufficiently senior standing and operational knowledge and is able to make commitments regarding forms of collaboration and data/resource sharing.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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When external researchers are embedded in an organization (especially in a team-based setting), there are opportunities to learn directly about operational systems and issues, which can enhance the researcher’s ability to ask or respond to real-world questions or issues.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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While collaboration and interaction with stakeholders are hallmarks of effective research, it is often the case that the personal/human factors are the ones that dictate related successes or failures. When soliciting partnerships, researchers should pay close attention to their own and each party’s capacity for cooperation and collaboration and understand the consequences of its presence or absence.
Project evaluation findings.
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Models

(2) Technological innovation systems (TIS) incorporate the actors and rules influencing the speed and direction of change in a specific technological area. The TIS approach emphasizes the interplay of all relevant actors.
Case study findings
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A Team-Based Knowledge Work (TBKW) theoretical framework can be used to identify the most appropriate type of team-based knowledge work based on team’s knowledge composition (homogeneous, heterogeneous) and the nature of the problem being solved (ill-structured, well-structured). A 2 x 2 matrix distinguishes the four types of TBKW: collaborative (ill-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition), integrative (ill-structured problem and homogeneous knowledge composition), modular (well-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition), and standardized (well-structured problem and homogeneous knowledge composition).
Case study and interviews.
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Methods

Employ metaroutines externally to identify sources of new knowledge. These subtasks include mining literature, learning from external partners, and initiating informal interactions with others.
Case study analysis
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Complex technologies require a collaborative approach for successful innovation and diffusion. Minimizing the level of innovation system uncertainty should be a focus of collaboration to identify needs, demonstrate the value of technologies, and work together to design and deliver post-purchase support. 
Case study findings
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Incubators often tout networking as a major attribute because social networks are informal and valuable relationships which take time and positioning to build.  
Case study findings
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Incubators can be categorized into classifications. Classify potential incubators by different elements to better compare them: private/public, by services offered, by value specialty, or by industry.
Case study findings
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Use various product simulation conditions to optimize products for widespread use.
Case-based research
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According to the researcher’s guide to planning for knowledge translation there are five essential elements of knowledge translation, including: the problem (the problem or issue to be addressed by the research/knowledge), context (the circumstances surrounding the user and researcher), knowledge (properties of the pre-existing knowledge/evidence about the problem or the generation of new knowledge/evidence), intervention (specific activities designed to translate knowledge/research into action), and use (ways in which the knowledge/research is or might be used). For each element, a series of questions is provided. Each question encourages the researcher to think broadly and deeply about the knowledge translation implications. Elements and related questions are evidence-based, which adds to their credibility.
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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Assign more than one financial staff member to the NPD team
Survey.
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Assigning broad tasks, as opposed to specialized tasks does not reduce development time significantly.
Meta analysis of 4 studies
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Collaborative team-based knowledge work — Work involves extensive interaction in a non-hierarchical fashion where knowledge sharing, explorative and exploitative knowledge creation, and single- and double-loop processing are frequent at both individual and team levels. This method works best when the team is dealing with an ill-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition.
Case study and interviews.
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Community based participatory research is meant to foster research that is collaborative, participatory, empowering, systematic, and transformative.
Case study
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Companies that could benefit from an early-stage empirical analysis should create a new, separate organization focused on truth seeking — or outsource this function to qualified academic researchers. A small team manages the operation, recruiting both internal and external staff and consultants with expertise and objectivity. The teams design critical experiments to rule in or rule out a product's key attributes. Teams should be small and fluid comprised of persons motivated by intellectual curiosity. No one follows any of the projects into the later NPD stages to maintain their objectivity.
Private sector experience in pharmaceutical industry.
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Compose an efficient project team; make sure that it is cross functional, includes gatekeepers, and its members have moderate tenure, i.e., have neither a too short nor too long a history together. This is to ensure increased information sharing and flow both internally and externally.
Authors report significant and robust link [link 1] between this method and product development speed in the integrated model. Actual results not reported. Clark & Fujimoto, 1991; Dougherty, 1992; Zirger & Maidique, 1990; Allen, 1971, 1977.
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Embedding a researcher in the target practice setting can achieve a number of benefits. Knowledge users have an opportunity to observe how the researcher works (how they translate and apply knowledge) and not just what the researcher knows (as evidenced by the end product of their work). The knowledge is made visible and more amenable to adaptation and application.Knowledge users can also immediately see the relevance and value of the knowledge in the context of their own work.
Case study.
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Facilitate group process; Build team cohesion by encouraging frequency of Internal and external communication by team members in order to increase amount of information and ensure fast product development
Authors report significant and robust link [link 2] in the integrated model, between this method and product development speed and subsequently, financial success. Actual results not reported.
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Integrative team-based knowledge work — Work is conducted through an iterative process of individual and team-work structures involving frequent knowledge sharing, exploitative and explorative knowledge creation and single-loop learning episodes. This method works best when the team is dealing with an ill-structured problem and homogeneous knowledge composition.
Case study and interviews.
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Involve consumers in team creation
Survey. Significant correlations with (a) product success dimensions: profits and sales; and also (b) with post launch NPD stage proficiency. Spearman correlation coefficient, and p value [profits r=0.537 p=0.048; sales r=0.533 p=0.0498]
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Involve stakeholders in the development and execution of a comprehensive communication plan. Communication vehicles should be tailored to respective stakeholder groups (e.g., for physicians and other health professionals — private visits to clinic offices, group-based presentations; for educators, care providers, community members, end users and the media — public appearances, including information booths at local malls, storefronts and community exhibits). Other community communication vehicles include newsletters, public awareness campaigns and advertisements. Professional communication includes interactions at local conferences.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Mentoring is one approach that can be applied to building capacity for knowledge translation research and practice. Some of the factors that should be considered when developing a mentorship program include the goals of program (research or practice focused, kinds of knowledge to be translated), participation enablers (mentorship training and incentives, mentor commitment, mentee choice), characteristics of the mentor and mentee (stage in career, specialization) mentor roles (expert, champion), program design and format (formal/informal, individual/group, in-person/remote), program delivery (frequency, duration, sequencing, screening, orientating, matching, executing), program support (tools, infrastructure) and program evaluation (changes in attitude, skill, behavior, relationships, application, productivity). Factors that may complicate mentoring include finding appropriate mentors, negotiating mentoring processes, setting mentoring boundaries and scheduling mentoring activities.
Literature review.
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Modular team-based knowledge work — Work is conducted through predefined discrete steps handled by specified experts, working in a modular fashion with limited knowledge sharing, and exploitative knowledge creation and single-loop learning at the team level. This method works best when the team is dealing with a well-structured problem and heterogeneous knowledge composition.
Case study and interviews processes.
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Standardized team-based knowledge work — Work is handled by individual experts in formal work structures where knowledge sharing is limited and exploitative knowledge creation and single-loop learning episodes occur at the individual level. This method works best when the team is dealing with a well-structured problem and homogeneous knowledge composition.
Case study and interviews.
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Techniques for gathering voice of the customer information include: use of customer complaints, internal market research, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, phone interviews, contextual inquiry, customer behavior studies, and perceptual mapping.
Literature review and case studies
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Technology Acquisition — Companies have finite resources and cannot afford to pursue all technologies in-house. Hence, organizations face the dilemma of deciding whether to develop technologies internally or to acquire them from a third-party. Further, as technologies become more complex, acquisition is increasingly regarded as a principle path for delivering new solutions. Technology acquisition helps bridge the technology gap in areas of expertise where the organization lags behind.
Literature review, author's industry experience with case study.
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The Participatory Action Knowledge Translation (PAKT) model can be used to specifically answer the research question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? The answer to this question emphasizes the integration of the ‘how to’ with the ‘what’ of KT — specifically, by paying attention to KT content, KT context and KT facilitation. KT content is not simply acquired as fact and applied. Rather, KT content is learned, via interpretation, formation, contextualization and performance and becomes incorporated into the craft of professional practice. KT context is leveraged when all KT participants experience a level playing field for the expression of factors they each consider to impede or facilitate KT. Skilled facilitators, jointly chosen by KT participants, enhance the process of KT.
Summary of a KT intervention based upon the participatory action KT (PAKT) model.
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Voice of the Customer Information as a Best Practice for the NPD process: 1) Market and buyer behavior studies are a valuable source of information for planning the market launch. 2) Market research as a tool to help define the product. 3) The customer or user ought to be an integral part of the Development process. 4) Identification of customers or users real or un-articulated needs and their problems, is considered fundamental to voice-of-the-customer research, and should be a key input to product design. 5) Working with highly innovative users or customers.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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When it is critical to identify barriers to market success early in the NPD process, proof of concept testing may be outsourced to external experts who advise on experimental designs, and external vendors who can advise on manufacturing, potential hazards and specialized services. Such outsourcing reinforces truth-seeking by injecting dispassionate outside perspectives. This also frees internal experts to focus on the analysis of the evidence generated by the external experiments.
Private sector experience in pharmaceutical industry.
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When seeking partners consider — in order — technological alignment (technical ability, technical resource and market knowledge complementarity, and overlapping knowledge bases); strategic alignment (motivation correspondence and goal correspondence); and relational alignment (compatible cultures, propensity to change, and long-term orientation).
Narrative analysis of case studies and literature review.
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Tips

Researchers take a professional risk by leaving academia to work in the private sector. Using researchers as consultants provides more academic freedom and better positions them to return to or stay within academia, making collaboration a more attractive prospect.
Findings of data analysis
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Physical proximity to an incubator after graduation has the added benefit of continued access to networks formed during incubation.
Case study findings
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As action group discussions unfold, participants can move more naturally between knowledge creation, transfer, uptake, and application, addressing and integrating each component into everyday work, if and as appropriate, in no particular order.
Summary of a KT intervention based upon the participatory action KT (PAKT) model.
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Complex knowledge processing (i.e. explorative knowledge creation and double-loop learning) typically requires increased reliance on other team members’ knowledge. It often entails the consideration of a broader range of perspectives, ideas and solutions, which requires close interdependent teamwork.
Case study and interviews.
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High quality teams lead to higher new product success. They should include a team leader dedicated to a single project and frequent communication between members. Decisions made by people outside of the team should be made quickly and efficiently.
Survey of 161 business units.
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If the integrated KT approach (which leverages the involvement of key stakeholders from research inception to completion) is being considered, ensure that the researcher understands they will have to share control of the project, with non-scientific stakeholders that may have a very different world view.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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If the integrated KT approach (which leverages the involvement of key stakeholders from research inception to completion) is used, ensure that adequate funding is allocated for promotional activities (e.g., public appearances, including information booths at local malls, storefronts and community exhibits; newsletters, public awareness campaigns and advertisements.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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In the federal system, networking should be extended to contractors. They should be invited to participate early. Contractor recommendations on research plans and schedules could reduce implementation risks. To ensure fair competition, all interested contractors should be asked to participate.
Lessons from empirical study.
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Industry consideration (high tech Vs. low tech): Consider that high tech (versus low tech) products accrue more benefits from cross functional integration.
Meta-analysis. Significant moderating effect of high tech products (vs. low tech products) on CFI-product success relationship.
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It is helpful to think about research and practice as dynamic, contextual and active processes, and not fixed categories. This makes it is possible, at different times, for one individual to be a researcher and a practitioner. It depends upon the activity they are involved in. This fluidity enables stakeholders to understand the value of seeing research (researchers) and practice (practitioners) as activities (members) of a single community, not silos (permanent labels).
Literature review.
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Managerial excellence is critical to product success. Products are more likely to be successful if they are planned and implemented well. Project planning should include all phases of the development process; research, development, engineering, manufacturing, and market introduction. Development does not have to be a linear process. The process should be regularly and formally monitored throughout the life of the project.
Survey of 172 electronics products.
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Matching new product development tasks to employee interests and strengths helps to ensure that those tasks will be appropriately handled. Employees who possess traits associated with inventors thrive in R&D environments; those who act as champions do well during the opportunity recognition phase; those who are project implementers are best placed in project execution roles; while serial innovators do well throughout the entire process.
Survey data.
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Membership in a research network may facilitate unique access to the expertise and research data of other network members. Also keep in mind that you may be expected to reciprocate.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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One of the benefits of stakeholder involvement in research projects is that they can learn about research. Learning can be evidence-oriented (e.g., stakeholder appreciation of research techniques and application of research findings, etc.), process-oriented (e.g., greater stakeholder awareness of data/information/knowledge sources and access protocols) attitude-oriented (e.g., a change in stakeholder views about, involvement in, and expectations of research projects and deliverables). While the researcher and stakeholders are typically explicitly focused on the evidence-oriented aspects of the project, the process- and attitude-oriented aspects may be particularly empowering and transformative for stakeholders. Indirect value may also be accrued when stakeholders take the opportunity to apply these learnings to the benefit of their own organizational contexts.
Project evaluation findings.
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Project performance will increase for teams that have a heavyweight leader with a great deal of organizational influence.
Meta analysis of 4 studies
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Research design: Where possible, involve an international, interdisciplinary team of experts and professionals in the design of the research program and its related content. Active and regular researcher interaction with political and policy decision-makers is highly recommended.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Research execution: Establish a stakeholder-representative Advisory Committee to act as project champions and to receive timely project updates and provide authoritative advice regarding project productivity, risk and budget.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Research execution: Face-to-face engagement with stakeholders and active participation in community-based activities can be effective KT strategies.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Research execution: Setup a study management team to oversee logistics, track progress and make decisions.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Researchers (and research networks) can enhance stakeholder receptivity to the application of research findings by establishing stakeholder advocates — members of the stakeholder community that are recognized as leaders and respected by their peers.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). Each stakeholder group brings a unique and informed perspective that can positively influence research design and knowledge translation strategy.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). If researchers are going to offer stakeholder involvement in the execution of research protocols or opportunities to co-authorship scholarly presentation or papers, researchers should ensure that stakeholders understand any requisite time and training commitments.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). Mutually respectful and trusting relationships can be strategic facilitators of longitudinal research studies.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). One way to manage expectations and avoid surprises is to jointly establish objectives, goals and commitments regarding time and resource availability, at the beginning of the project. These could be documented informally or formally by way of a memorandum of agreement — whatever complements the stakeholder’s culture. Sharing the commitments broadly facilitates common awareness.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). To avoid interruptions that could result from the departure of specific stakeholder group members, researchers should establish group- or institutional-level linkages.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from the involvement of frontline personnel of knowledge user groups (stakeholder groups), the individuals directly involved in applying the knowledge in their projects. Frontline personnel are often acutely aware of current client demographics and have first-hand evidence of existing knowledge/practice deficits.This enables them to ask important questions that others may not have anticipated. Participation can be a welcome break from their regular responsibilities, an opportunity to learn new skills, an exemplar of how to move evidence into practice, and stimulate professional renewal and inspiration. Involving frontline personnel also helps to bridge communications with researchers.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from the involvement of graduate students in their projects. Students are often in direct contact with stakeholder participants and can contribute valuable insights about the effectiveness of the research process. They also can gain important insights about research instruments they use and how the instruments are being received by stakeholder participants. Students also have an opportunity to gain experience in the field and establish a network of contacts that may be useful in advancing their career. Involving students also helps to bridge communications with stakeholders.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers should move out of their familiar context and into the context of the user group to gain insights for effective knowledge translation.
Literature review and synthesis.
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Such broad community engagement also necessitates involvement of the professional community in dialogue that goes beyond traditional disciplines, roles and responsibilities towards a transdisciplinary approach to science and practice if knowledge is to be adequately moved through this complex system.
Literature review
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The inherently complex nature of knowledge translation implies that, to be comprehensive, there would need to be an equally complex set of knowledge translation guidelines. This is not practical for design or practice, as it could involve a significant number of permutations and combinations and could easily overwhelm a researcher — especially a novice one. One alternative is to provide a simple template that explains the essential knowledge translation guideline categories (e.g. problem statement, research context, knowledge objectives, possible research interventions, and potential knowledge uses) and associates sample questions and hypothetical examples with each category to reinforce deliberation, understanding and application.
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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Use of cross functional teams decreases development time, but does not necessarily impact goal failure rates.
Meta analysis of 5 studies
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When a practitioner is involved in a knowledge translation process, they may supplement the new (research-based) knowledge with knowledge drawn from past professional experience, training and discourse.
Application of Graham’s Knowledge-to-Action Process model in occupational therapy.
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When engaging in knowledge translation, researchers should try to avoid the simple messenger-receiver model of communication and explore approaches that involve stakeholder participation.
Literature review.
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When forming teams, investigators should give consideration to the knowledge base/requirements of individual team members. Heterogeneous team knowledge typically implies a greater need for knowledge sharing between team members. Project practices (e.g., workshopping) and resources should be allocated to account for the increased demand for sharing. Conversely, homogeneous team knowledge suggests a reduced requirement for knowledge sharing. Project practices and resources should focus on optimizing individual team member productivity.
Case study and interviews.
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Secondary findings

Barriers

Challenges in developer/user collaboration include: motivating the developers, identifying appropriate users, obtaining access to users, motivating the users, and deriving benefits from user contacts when established.
Source: Case studies. In: Kujala, S. (2008)

Differences in organizational cultures, mindsets, expectations, and behavior. Knowledge spillover may result when dealing with proprietary information in collaborations.
Source: Hanson & Lackman, 1998; Tse, Francis & Walls, 1994; Yan, Luo, & Child, 2000. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Stakeholders may not respond well to imbalances in the distribution of decision-making power, process controls or project resources. Researcher should try to achieve a balance or explain why differences must exist.
Source: Martens (2005). In: Jansson, S. M., Benoit, C., Casey, L., Phillips, R., & Burns, D. (2010)

The absence of interactions between researchers and decision makers (knowledge users) has been cited as the primary reason for low utilization of research findings.
Source: Huberman (1987). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Carriers

A Learning Alliance — The acquisition and exploitation of knowledge generated by others as a means to speed a firm's development capabilities, while minimizing the technological risk. Learning alliances are a a key factor in offering technology-based solutions. They are established to access the relevant skills and capabilities of the alliance partner — their know-how — which is difficult to communicate and capture through standard market mechanisms.
Source: Grant and Baden-Fuller (2004). In: Canez, L., L Puig, R. Quintero, M. Garfias (2007)

A research project-based policy entrepreneur can be a central force for coordinating and promoting collective policy learning.
Source: Stone (2001a). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Actively involving knowledge users as partners in the research process is a strong predictor that the research findings will be used and that the research endeavor overall will achieve a greater impact.
Source: Lomas (2000, 2007); Denis (2003); Ross (2003); Kothari (2005); Minkler (2005). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Annual community forums can be an effective way to engage a community. Forums can be targeted at prioritizing research actions or on knowledge transfer related to research results. Common objectives are to facilitate mutual learning and collaboration among research and community members and to improve research outcomes and the dissemination of research findings by providing knowledge transfer around the policy and research process to the community. Typically, forums are conducted from half to a full day and include 80–100 research knowledge producers and users.
Source: Birdsell (2002); Dunnett (2004); Williams (2005). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Early and ongoing involvement of relevant decision makers (knowledge users) in the conceptualization and conduct of a research study can be a strong predictor of its utilization.
Source: Lomas (2000). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

In many cases, when researchers and knowledge users meet face-to-face to jointly interpret research results, knowledge users perceptions of the utility of that research is often increased.
Source: Mohrman (2001); Rynes (2001); Huberman (1994); Walter (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Interactions between researchers and policy makers (knowledge users) can increase the prospects for research use.
Source: Lavis (2005). In: Lavis, John (2006)

Involving stakeholders throughout the research cycle may improve their investment in the research.
Source: Martens (2005). In: Jansson, S. M., Benoit, C., Casey, L., Phillips, R., & Burns, D. (2010)

Knowledge brokers are a potential strategy for moving knowledge to action. The rationale for knowledge brokers is the need to provide an intermediary who could facilitate collaborations between researchers and research users and find research evidence to shape decisions, be able to assess this evidence, interpret it and adapt it to circumstances and identify emerging management and policy issues that research could help inform. Knowledge of marketing and communication and the capacity to span boundaries and understand the potentially disparate worlds that researchers and knowledge users live in is also needed. Based on this skill set, individuals with diverse experience in both the research and decision or policy-making worlds or organizations whose mandate is to span these worlds would be ideal knowledge brokers. From this description, it can be concluded that knowledge brokering is certainly not new. Relationship brokers exist in most organizations and sectors. What is new, however, are growing calls to recognize and formalize this role in the KT process not only to evaluate its effectiveness but also to capitalize on the benefits it can bring to the process while also learning more about its potential drawbacks
Source: Lawrence (2006); Lomas (1993, 2007); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2003, 2004); Lyons (2006); Dobbins (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Knowledge exploitation (the transfer and adoption of knowledge and technology through commercialization) can be a complex process. It can benefit from simplification, through the sharing of best practice and use of specialist and expert facilitation.
Source: Lockett (2006). In: Lockett, N., Cave, F., Kerr, R. & Robinson, S. (2009)

Knowledge translation activities benefit from involvement of stakeholders early in the research process and establishing effective working relationships with them. Where possible, provide opportunities for in-person meetings.
Source: Roos (1999); Lomas(2000); Davis (1996). In: Bowen, S., Martens, P. & The Need to Know Team (2005)

Many decision makers (knowledge users) consider interaction-focused approaches to be valuable ways to facilitate knowledge utilization.
Source: Innvaer (2002). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Mass dissemination through the local media can be critical to ensuring that beneficial development takes place. The more people that are aware of the research, the greater the likelihood that the findings and their implications will be discussed, and the better the interest and support for the practical applications of the results. Engaging the media can be a key factor. For research to have the desired impact on social consciousness and policy directives, research dissemination strategies should target both decision makers, as well as the general public.
Source: Miller (1999). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Networks, including communities of practice, knowledge networks, and soft networks, are potentially effective mechanisms for knowledge dissemination and application because their principal purpose is to connect people who might not otherwise have an opportunity to interact, enable dialog, stimulate learning, and capture and diffuse knowledge. A community of practice is a group of people who share a common concern, a set of problems, or interest in a topic and who come together to fulfill both individual and group goals usually focused on improving professional practice. Although communities of practice tend to be relatively informal, a knowledge network is a more formal community consisting of groups of experts from different fields who come together around a common goal or issue. Finally, a soft network is a large referral system whereby members sign onto a LISTSERV primarily for the purpose of making connections. Each type of network can play a role in the dissemination of knowledge.
Source: Birdsell (2003); Wenger (2002); Cambridge (2009); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

One form of stakeholder (knowledge user)–researcher partnership is formal support. In this case, knowledge users explicitly support, facilitate access to resources, and confer legitimacy on the research but do not get involved in the research process.
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

One form of stakeholder (knowledge user)–researcher partnership is integral partner. In this case, knowledge users initiate a high degree of contact with researchers and the knowledge users are fully engaged in the research process as a significant partner.
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

One form of stakeholder (knowledge user)–researcher partnership is responsive audience. In this case, knowledge users provide information, respond to researchers' queries and information needs, and are involved in most phases of the research process beyond conceptualization.
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Participation of research project-based policy entrepreneurs in public policy networks can strengthen the linkages and exchanges between researchers and policy makers.They provide awareness of research and initiatives and facilitate social learning.
Source: Reinicke (1999, 2000); Kingdon (1984). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Partnering with local media providers can allow research to be tailored to meet the needs and address the concerns of the local audience. Public and political perceptions of the value and creditability of research can be higher if it is local in context and is provided by local experts who have a commitment to sustained involvement and good communication practices, which in turn can create a higher degree of trust in research findings. Using well-established and credible messengers, such as local media, not only facilitates wider dissemination, but can also reinforce the importance of working with the community, as well as target audiences, in all stages of the knowledge transfer process.
Source: Cooke (1995); Maskell (1999); Tyden (2000). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Success factors for integrated knowledge translation (which brings together researchers and knowledge users for the purpose of generating, exchanging, and applying knowledge to understand and address an issue) include: a process to develop a shared perspective, common language, and common understanding about the issue that stakeholders will be focusing on; a plan for collaboration with explicit description of roles and responsibilities and a commitment to regularly assess its effectiveness; participants with competencies and experiences in building, negotiating, and maintaining effective research and knowledge translation collaborations; a strategy for ensuring that trusting relationships among stakeholders are maintained and conflicts are resolved appropriately when they arise; and institutional support, including incentives in both academic and knowledge user environments, could also facilitate success.
Source: CIHR Institute of Health Services and Policy Research (2006); Denis (2003); Ross (2003); Kothari (2005); Minkler (2005); Ducharme (2003); CIHR Institute of Population (2006); Walter (2003); Golden-Biddle (2003); Roussos (2000); Cousins (1996); Watson (2007); Israel (1998); Butterfoss (2006); Parry (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

The existence of an overarching relationship (historical or longstanding) between a researcher and relevant decision makers (knowledge users), where research utilization is only one activity in the larger, ongoing relationship, can be important for the utilization of research findings.
Source: Goering (2003); Mohrman (2001); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2002); Golden-Biddle (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Timing and timeliness can increase (and poor timing or lack of timeliness can decrease) the prospects for research use.
Source: Lavis (2005). In: Lavis, John (2006)

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the process and outcome is the social system — the contextual space in which the knowledge is expected to be used (e.g., individual, institutional, political, and environmental factors). As one example, one set of factors that can determine how and if new knowledge will reach its intended audience are the characteristics of the individuals that are involved, including personality traits and communication behavior.
Source: Brown (1981). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

Methods

Degree of CFI ( interaction, communication, info-sharing, coordination) is key driver of new product success
Source: Griffin and Hauser, 1992, 1996; Gupta, Raj and Wilemon, 1986. In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process.
Source: Douthwaite et al (2001). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been found to integrate KT with the innovation development and adoption process. Specifically, the PAR process enables participants to take an innovation and adapt it to their context, to engage in critical reflection to achieve this adaptation, and to work behind the scenes to encourage involvement and commitment.
Source: Waterman, et al. (2007). In: McWilliam, C. L., Kothari, A., Ward-Griffin, C., Forbes, D., Leipert, B. & South West Community Care Access Centre Home Care (2009)

Table 1 Studies on Collaborative NPD lists 12 studies related to codevelopment and collaboration in new product development.
Source: See table 1. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Tips

As the number of years a group has been together increases, productivity decreases. Upper management can improve the situation by ensuring that an appropriate leader is heading the group.
Source: Katz, R., & Allen, T. J., 1982. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Consideration of quality /features/benefits of products
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Creative tensions in groups can help to improve performance by providing security and stability while also offering challenges. Further, a mix of technical backgrounds, age, experience, and values can help improve group productivity.
Source: Kuhn, T. S., 1963. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

For accuracy while surveying, use key informants (who know more) rather than averaging data from multi-sources.
Source: Huber and Power, 1985. In: Samra, Y.M., Lynn, G.S. & Reilly, R.R. (2008)

One factor that can influence a knowledge user’s decision to become involved and play a role in a research project is the amount of their time that will be required.
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

One factor that can influence a knowledge user’s decision to become involved and play a role in a research project is the degree of alignment between the knowledge user’s expertise and the focus of the research project.
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

One factor that can influence a knowledge user’s decision to become involved and play a role in a research project is whether the project has already started (and if it has, what stage is it at).
Source: Ross (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Organizational strength (strategy, skills, culture) as driver of new product success
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya- Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Significant innovations are likely to emerge from a combination of complimentary skills
Source: Glaister, 1996. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

To achieve the highest level of technical excellence, technical groups should be formed based on individual's areas of expertise.
Source: Marquis, D. G., Straight, D. L., 1965. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)