Step 2.2

Gather input from key stakeholders to perform preliminary valuability assessments, and determine business, market and technical feasibility for envisioned product. Ensure core idea is protected and avoid co-invention claims through signed non-disclosure agreements. 

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Users / patients who create solutions or improve treatments for themselves can help others in their same situation, if they are able to share their progress.
Case study findings
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In publically-funded models patients/customers have no choice over which devices are prescribed and are dissatisfied with the options whereas free-market customers are overwhelmed by too many high and low-end options.
Case study findings
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Some AT is designed using false assumptions about users.
Case study findings
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In this survey, almost one third of respondents incorrectly defined demand led research as researchers consulting beneficiaries or other stakeholders on researcher-defined problems. The other third of participants generally described demand-led research as a problem-based process without acknowledging the group in need.
Discourse analysis findings
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Different groups express different priorities and language used by researchers tells much about their perspective on problems. Researchers who make generalizations about groups and make infinitive suggestions about who should do what have indicated failure to involve the noun groups in question. 
Discourse analysis findings
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Adopting new technologies is presumed to be a logical decision; however individual users determine for themselves the costs and benefits of investing in new tech, including their own natural resistance to change. If the return on investment doesn’t support the change, not adopting new tech is the rational choice for the user.
Case study findings
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Developed knowledge and processes around a current practice can create a form of lock-in where new innovation has to provide advantage above a threshold before sustained change occurs. 
Case study findings
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Associating technology with masculinity systemically excludes and stymies progress of women in technology or at least burdens them with coping with their status as an ‘other’.  
Study findings
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Pre-established networking practices rely on gendered behaviors which exclude the non-dominant gender, preventing equal opportunity or barring members from entrance altogether.
Study findings
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Research agendas about open innovation often stay within OI and fail to leverage knowledge in other disciplines like marketing or engineering.
Literature review findings
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The market value of new medical technology varies based on need. 
Case-based research
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Informal knowledge sharing platforms lack the predictability and organization of formal systems with regards to management goals like regulating participation and leveraging connections. 
Literature review and case study.
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Definition of Product Requirements
Survey of manufacturers (n=80). One third of respondents identified Incorrectly defined requirements as the most significant problem, particularly the incorrect definition of initial requirements.
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Inability of Small and Medium sized Enterprises to locate needed knowledge from universities
The author conducted phone interviews with universities to understand the problems of university knowledge utilization by small and medium sized enterprises. He discovered the databases were difficult to find, contained irrelevant information, and information which is complex and implicit.
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Insufficiently verified knowledge and changing consumer preferences can have a negative impact on the accuracy of customer preference knowledge.
Survey of 165 Canadian manufacturing firms.
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One of the factors that can impede knowledge translation is knowledge asymmetry. As one example, the knowledge user (in need) may know more about a particular issue, while the researcher (with interest) may know more about potential solutions. The knowledge user’s limited awareness of potential solutions may make them skeptical about the researcher’s confidence in the proposed solution. The researcher may feel undervalued. One approach the knowledge user and researcher could take to bridge the gap is to invest time in building a professional relationship and establishing mutual trust.
Literature review and conceptual framework development.
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Organizational executives often state that they are exposed to more new ideas (research findings) than they have resources to explore. Researchers need to devise ways of getting their attention, communicating value and sourcing resources.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Organizational executives often state they do not have the time to consider the applicability of new research findings. Researchers need to devise ways of getting their attention and communicating value.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Researchers and stakeholders are usually able to quickly identify situations where rhetoric has replaced agreed upon and expected project behavior. Rhetoric often triggers mistrust and a re-evaluation of commitments in response. Consider ‘partnering’ in collaborative research as one example. Partnering with stakeholders is a relatively new trend in research. Researchers and stakeholders must be able to consistently demonstrate, through their words and actions that genuine partnering behavior will occur. This can be challenging, especially early in the project when the capabilities of the respective parties are not fully known to each other. Creating formal (e.g., joint development of deliverables) and informal (e.g., social events) opportunities for parties to interact can help to provide evidence of agreed upon behavior or provide a shared platform to challenge exceptions.
Project evaluation findings.
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Some researchers may have reservations about conducting user-driven research projects that have immediate utility. These types of projects are often difficult to develop in real-time and the results may be too proprietary or too hard to share or generalize — potentially limiting the value to the researcher.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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When executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “replicability” of the research findings, especially in their setting. Researchers should clearly communicate “replicability.”
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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When organizational executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “scalability” of the research findings. Researchers should clearly communicate “scalability.”
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
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Carriers

Grants stimulate farmers to experiment with new practices, engage in research, and utilize business development services. Otherwise they may be reluctant to adopt change.
Case study findings
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Vouchers can specify activities that foster institutional cooperation like knowledge development/sharing or business development. This stimulates growth in the supporting organizations, which benefits both the users and service providers.  
Case study findings
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Patient involvement increases relevance pragmatism and overall usefulness of research. 
Case study findings
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Language reveals a lot about the researchers’ perspective on problems and solutions. Identifying the theme (main subject) and rheme (elaboration) allow you to determine orientation. Certain words or phrases such as if, you should, and for example help to classify statements. 
Discourse analysis findings
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New technology adoption is affected by different variables: education, asset possession, risk taking attitude, and aptitude for new technology (absorptive capacity). 
Case study findings
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The relative advantage a technology provides over incumbent practice or technology impacts adoption and risk in terms of return on investment or the cost of failure. 
Case study findings
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Actors in networks can include other organizations beyond universities such as unions, aboriginal groups, foundations, individuals or other invested non-governmental groups.
Survey findings
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Businesses can collaborate with universities to enhance their current technological capabilities or to expand their subjective footprint.
Case study findings
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Innovations have three components: an innovative opportunity  consists of the following three components:(a)an economic value for someone; (b) mobilization of resources; and (c)the ability to appropriate at least some part of the economic value of the innovation, by the actor pursuing the opportunity.
Case study findings
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In a hub model stakeholders can share insights and receive feedback.
Literature review and case study.
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Joint enterprises can strengthen the bond between researchers and practitioners, and nurture a sustainable project community. Co-location of researchers and practitioners represents one form of joint enterprise. This approach enables researchers to see how practices are conducted and hear how practices are discussed (and practitioners to see how research is conducted and hear how research is discussed). Often, the increased opportunity for informal observation and interaction nurtures an environment where co-creation and co-ownership are common outcomes.
Literature review.
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Knowledge translation literacy — Establishing relevant research questions — Researchers tend to begin by observing a broad or abstract problem and then narrowing down to a very specific question that can be answered with confidence following a scientific method. In our experience, practitioners may take the inverse approach. They encounter a very specific or practical problem, and, in the course of framing research questions, their inquiry broadens and they see a whole family of interconnected issues that impinge on the question that also need to be addressed. In both cases, the process of defining the problem and the question are learning exercises. But the processes seem to move in opposite directions, and it can be challenging to execute a delimited project that makes sense and is meaningful to everyone. Involving stakeholders can help to isolate and hone the research question. They can be helpful in identifying policy nuances, complexities, contradictions, and systemic links that needed to be taken into account for the study to be comprehensive.
Literature review and experience.
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Knowledge translation literacy — Stakeholder drivers — Awareness of decision-makers’ time frames and a community’s priorities can help researchers to better align their projects and deliverables. Questions researchers might ask themselves include: What are any upcoming stakeholder-driven decision points or events that our research might impact?
Literature review and experience.
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Mutual engagement between researchers and stakeholders promotes the identification of common issue and concerns and enables them to jointly frame a project that encourages mutual commitment and seeks mutual value.
Literature review.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). As a researcher gets to know a stakeholder group, there is the potential to develop a trusting relationship, which can lead to greater openness and opportunities to better understand the issues that drive the stakeholder group and the kinds of important questions that remain unanswered and remain open to research.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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The inclusion of a policy entrepreneur on a research project can enhance: policy-related research focus, policy stakeholder understanding of the project and engagement in related activities, and the relevance, transferability and use of research findings by policy stakeholders.
Project-based learnings.
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To overcome processing problems that technically-oriented developers may have with processing written descriptions of user needs, present the information in the form of user-needs tables instead.
Case study
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Models

(2) Technological innovation systems (TIS) incorporate the actors and rules influencing the speed and direction of change in a specific technological area. The TIS approach emphasizes the interplay of all relevant actors.
Case study findings
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Methods

Evaluating technological innovation systems for their ability to support development and diffusion will identify factors that can hinder adaptation and market success. 
Case study findings
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Internal metaroutines for idea generation include working sessions and using an integrated knowledge management system. 
Case study analysis
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Incubators often tout networking as a major attribute because social networks are informal and valuable relationships which take time and positioning to build.  
Case study findings
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6 main steps for identifying user needs, analyzing data and making use of findings: identify stakeholder and user groups, visit users and explore their needs, describe the current situation, analyze and prioritize the problems and possibilities, redesign the current situation, and define user requirements
Case studies
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An Innovation Systems perspective suggests that end users should be involved in the identification of enabling or constraining factors to innovation. End users should also be involved in joint actions to capitalize on possibilities and remove impediments that may exist (e.g., legislation, infrastructure, policy, culture).
Case study of an agricultural system within The Netherlands.
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By using templates, the time required for new product development is drastically reduced. At the same time incorporating computer-aided process planning into the system gives the designer a better understanding of the cost implications of the modified design with respect to manufacturing. The major challenge in implementing of such system is that any changes in the manufacturing facility have to be incorporated in the process plans stored. This can be a tedious job but can be overcome by using hybrid process planning approach instead of variant based approach.
Author experience
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Design to cost tools and methods are used to design a product with the lowest possible life cycle cost and highest performance, quality, and reliability. 75% of the product cost is defined during the concept & feasibility and Alpha phase, the remaining 25% during manufacturing release & volume production.
Experience and professional training of author.
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Distribution of collaboration during Market Assessment stage was manufacturer involvement (82%), user involvement (53%) and third-party involvement (35%).
Case study of seventeen medical equipment innovations marketed by 13 Dutch firms.
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Embedding a researcher in the target practice setting can achieve a number of benefits. Knowledge users have an opportunity to observe how the researcher works (how they translate and apply knowledge) and not just what the researcher knows (as evidenced by the end product of their work). The knowledge is made visible and more amenable to adaptation and application.Knowledge users can also immediately see the relevance and value of the knowledge in the context of their own work.
Case study.
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From a design perspective, a user-centered approach is necessary to ensure that a concept [for a device or service] will be useful and indeed used. However to deployed in a real environment, it is also essential that the solution can be used by everyone, including family members their carers, and doctors. Ideally, the solution should be useful to all people.
Survey and device trials involving persons with physical and/or cognitive impairments.
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Involve consumers in product benchmarking and visits to view competitive products
Survey. Significant correlations with (a) product success dimensions: profits and sales; and also (b) with post launch NPD stage proficiency. Spearman correlation coefficient, and p value [profits r=0.537 p=0.048; sales r=0.533 p=0.0498]
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Knowledge brokering — the closer the knowledge brokering service matches the knowledge users’ needs and environment, the more likely the brokering services will be used. One way to facilitate this alignment is to conduct an in-depth needs assessment with potential participants. This approach is helpful in building relationships between the broker and potential users — which facilitates trust and sustainable engagement. This approach also enables the broker to better understand the life cycle of the users’ project and to adapt service offerings to changing needs.
Description of knowledge broker roles.
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Market and sensory methodologies facilitate the optimization of products, in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic design attributes, for the development of products targeted at specific end-user groups. The information gathered can be used to establish the current competitive position, and enable product developers to identify market niches for new, and improved products.
Case study using sensory analysis and focus groups to obtain voice of the customer input.
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Market research in the pre-development stage (research phase), can reveal useful information about customer requirements that later drives NPD parameters and results in financial success.
Survey of 166 firms.
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Most NPD processes emphasis teamwork, concurrent engineering, and speed to market. However, industries where development costs are high, and where market failure rates are high, may be better served by focusing on empirical trials to explore feasibility at an early stage. This early truth-seeking stage focuses on evaluating the prospect of success for novel products, to eliminate bad bets that are likely to waste organizational resources.
Private sector experience in pharmaceutical industry.
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Organizations should have coherent administrative procedures, including information-gathering systems reviewing new opportunities; flexible capital budgets that extend beyond two years; up-to-date capital budgeting manuals; full time capital budgeting staff; regular reviews of hurdle rates; and a capital appropriation committee to vet projects.
Survey with significant findings
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Product effectiveness is driven by internal input from Team Leaders and Senior Management, and by external input from Customers, which together forms a clear vision for the intended product.
Summary statement drawn from body of literature reviewed by the authors.
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Product performance is driven by the amount, variety and problem-solving organization of information and by the resources available to the project team
Literature review. Summary statement drawn from body of literature reviewed by the authors.
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Product positioning is crucial for success. As a product gets closer to launch it may be found to offer no competitive advantage. Therefore it is important for early analysis to focus on product issues such as compatibility and versatility, cost effectiveness and ease of technical service may all differentiate the new offer from existing competitors.
A balanced sample of 62 success products and 62 failure products drawn from 31 hi-tech firms, were analyzed via questionnaire and case study interviews.
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Researchers generate new knowledge while working in communities of research, health professionals operate in communities of practice, patients operate their own communities of support. Interacting with all three communities are formally organized governmental organizations, as well as health care industry organizations.
Literature review grounded in practical experience of health care professionals.
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Role for Research in NPD Process — In industries where both NPD costs and market failure rates are high, speed to market should be compromised by a focus on feasibility testing through scientific methods. Most organization's focus on late-stage NPD where the emphasis is on seeking success through commercialization methods. They lack a truth-seeking function based on objective empirical research methods to validate the proof-of-concept.
Private sector experience in pharmaceutical industry.
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Sound evaluation methods are needed for new product success, including strategic screenings of new product proposals; utilization of market research; and primary and secondary valuation using a variety of methods such as net present value or Payback.
Survey with significant findings.
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Techniques for gathering voice of the customer information include: use of customer complaints, internal market research, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, phone interviews, contextual inquiry, customer behavior studies, and perceptual mapping.
Literature review and case studies
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The NPD process needs more study of the Ideation Process and its contribution to downstream success.
Literature review of 815 NPD articles published in the 10 leading marketing, management, NPD and R&D journals from 1989 to 2004.
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The Participatory Action Knowledge Translation (PAKT) model can be used to specifically answer the research question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? The answer to this question emphasizes the integration of the ‘how to’ with the ‘what’ of KT — specifically, by paying attention to KT content, KT context and KT facilitation. KT content is not simply acquired as fact and applied. Rather, KT content is learned, via interpretation, formation, contextualization and performance and becomes incorporated into the craft of professional practice. KT context is leveraged when all KT participants experience a level playing field for the expression of factors they each consider to impede or facilitate KT. Skilled facilitators, jointly chosen by KT participants, enhance the process of KT.
Summary of a KT intervention based upon the participatory action KT (PAKT) model.
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The primary drivers of performance appear to be: 1. Cross-functional Involvement and good interfacing between those involved in undertaking NPD. 2. Developing a profile of defined product/market arenas to direct new product ideation and investment in R&D and marketing capabilities. 3. Provision of adequate resources for undertaking NPD. 4. Leadership and organization of projects including the use of product champions and enabling managers the flexibility to make decisions relating to NPD activities. 5. A strong market orientation that links both customer and competitor insights into the NPD process for improved decision-making. 6. A high level of senior management involvement in order to illustrate to employees that management is committed to successful NPD outcomes. 7. Undertaking up-front homework including appropriate project screening and evaluation activities, concept development and testing, and preliminary market and technical testing.
Survey. Results from questionnaire analysis.
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The study mapped out what the research findings would mean to different groups of actors (stakeholders) involved. In the process they identified six Stakeholder Groups: 1) Clinicians; 2) Consumers; 3) Researchers; 4) Policy Makers; 5) Information Brokers; 6) Manufacturers.
Comparative analysis of policy-related research results and the expectations of policy-makers regarding information useful for application in their decisions.
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User-needs tables combine the two most essential representations of context of use — a task sequence and user problems and possibilities. Thus user-need tables represent user needs to users' problems and possibilities and link them to a task sequence
Case studies
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Utilization of market research early in the new product development process, and continuing throughout the entire development phase is critical to ensuring success.
Survey data.
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Utilize novel approach for multiple-attribute decision analysis to identify ideal design choices out of a set of alternatives.
Single case study demonstrating applicability of method.
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Measures

Brand-equity analyses can be used to evaluate brand/line extensions. Combining historical data with consumer surveys, this analysis allows an organization to see the potential impact of brand extensions while still at the concept stage.
Literature Review
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Manufacturers should carefully analyze and integrate the input and knowledge from both the potential early and late adopters, and then design and adjust product features accordingly.
Case analysis
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Tips

Rules regulating business activities may be defined with exceptions for “the greater good,” and market intervention can occur in instances of market failures.
Case study findings
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Evaluate rules regarding fund dispersal. Include obligations and obstacles as part of SWOT analysis.
Case study findings
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Categorizing responses by factualness and attitude towards groups reveals problems, confidence level, hopes, preconceptions, surrounding conditions, etc . Use this insight to identify and resolve any oversights.
Discourse analysis findings
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An emphasis on generating information on customers’ existing and latent needs and the activities of competitors, and employ this in both idea generation and screening of ideas and concepts.
Survey. Manager implications drawn from results of study.
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Assemble market structure maps to have visual representation of the competitive environment, including competing companies, products, target market segments, and external forces affecting markets. This can help identify market opportunities.
Experiential
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Consider cultural difference that may influence product acceptance, which involves customer interests, level of risk customers are willing to take, the the state of refinement required for them to commit to adoption and use.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Customer interaction enhances the NPD process most at the early and and late stages of product design and development. The middle stage of prototyping and bench testing should be left to the internal project staff, while customers can be kept abreast of this interim progress to keep them current. A deficit in current business practice is particularly evident in the early stages of NPD.
Field interviews and 310 survey responses from R&D managers.
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Designing appropriate screening and evaluation “gates” to help prioritize projects and select winners for advancement. Preliminary up-front homework may include such activities as broad screening based on key market and technical capabilities and a broad financial assessment. At a second stage this may include refining product concepts and specifications ensuring stronger customer input and assessment, improved technical evaluation, and financial analysis.
Survey. Manager implications drawn from results of study.
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During the planning stage of a research project, it is important to give equal consideration to the time and resource demands that will be placed on stakeholders. Explicit recognition can build respect, trust and encourage sustained stakeholder involvement.
Project evaluation findings.
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During the research planning stage, it can be very challenging to accurately estimate the amount of time that will be required for building trust and evolving shared understanding and goals, especially if there has been no prior interaction with stakeholders. There is a tendency to under-estimate time requirements, so it may be better to err on the side on overestimating requirements.
Project evaluation findings.
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Effective user involvement has shown to yield a variety of benefits: 1) Improved quality of the system; avoidance of costly features that the user did not want or cannot use; 3) improved levels of acceptance; 4) greater understanding of the system by the user resulting in more effective use; and 5) increased participation in decision-making within the organization.
Case studies
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Effectively reviewing information from past new product development projects while integrating marketing and research and development will significantly influence product launch proficiency, design change frequency and technological core competency fit.
Survey. Significant interaction for product launch proficiency (F=4.49, p<.05), design change frequency (F=4.32, p<.05) and technological core competency fit (F=5.22, p<.05).
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If an organization is seeking to develop radical technological innovations they should explore specification development tools other than just customers' wants and needs.
In-depth interviews of eight firms.
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If funding organizations are going to require explicit identification of knowledge translation activities in research proposals, the funding organizations should ensure that researchers fully understand the purpose and processes associated with knowledge translation. Funding organizations should also strongly encourage researchers to consider the addition of relevant knowledge translation thinking and activities early in the research planning stages. It is important that researchers demonstrate awareness of the value and benefits of incorporating knowledge translation in their projects, and not just appear to be complying with funder requirements by ‘ticking-off-boxes.’
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
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In the government policy making process, it is important to remember that research evidence often competes with other forms of evidence (e.g., budgetary constraints and the legal code) and with values (e.g., public opinion about the role of government versus the market). The receptivity of a policy proposal can be influenced by how it aligns with (or is given visibility by) other institutional arrangements (e.g., jurisdictional authorities, past policies and practices, etc.) and interests (e.g., elected officials’ commitments, civil servants’ authorities, advisory bodies, etc.).
Literature review and direct experience.
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Include manufacturing personnel in competitive analyses — their knowledge will help with comparisons to competitors products and is also useful for reverse engineering activities.
Interviews with four high-tech firms.
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Increase the levels of learning orientation and marketing power within your firm while utilizing proactive marketing orientation and the impact on new product program performance will increase.
Survey. The impact of proactive market orientation on new product program performance was significantly increased under conditions of higher marketing power and learning orientation.
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Industry consideration (high tech Vs. low tech): Consider that high tech (versus low tech) products accrue more benefits from cross functional integration.
Meta-analysis. Significant moderating effect of high tech products (vs. low tech products) on CFI-product success relationship.
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Involvement of customers with strong past ties will result in the development of products with higher competitive performance than those that involve customers with no or few past ties. However, this practice is most effective when developing incremental products, rather than highly innovative products.
Survey of 137 new product development projects.
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It is important that information about the stakeholder needs converge with information about technical capabilities.
Case studies and interviews
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Knowledge brokers can act as bridging agents, helping researchers to understand stakeholders and their environment and helping stakeholders to understand researchers and the research project — and the mutual benefits associated with their involvement. Knowledge brokering is demanding and often difficult work. Knowledge brokers can benefit from the availability of a formal support infrastructure, adequate resourcing, and allocations of time that enable them to build and sustain an understanding of researcher and stakeholders operations. Knowledge brokers may also be good candidates for co-authorship of scholarly papers and co-presenters at workshops or conferences.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Knowledge translators should adopt conceptualizations of knowledge, evidence, and KT as human processes fraught with all of the challenges of human subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change within a complex context.
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Maintain responsive market orientation when there is a high level of consensus regarding the firms strategy.
Survey. The impact on new product program performance was significantly increased by responsive market orientation under conditions of high strategic consensus.
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Market and technology strategies must match the company structure, be explicit, and be integrated into the larger framework of the organization's new product development strategy.
Survey of 171 firms.
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Needs analysis includes problem definition and problem validation. These activities are foundational to the initiation of the systems engineering process and to the successful execution of the design and qualification of both the operational and development systems.
Case studies and interviews
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Research design: Where possible, involve an international, interdisciplinary team of experts and professionals in the design of the research program and its related content. Active and regular researcher interaction with political and policy decision-makers is highly recommended.
Applying integrated KT in Mental Health research.
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Researchers can benefit from establishing ongoing partnerships with key knowledge users (stakeholder groups). Each stakeholder group brings a unique and informed perspective that can positively influence research design and knowledge translation strategy.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers can benefit from the involvement of front line personnel of knowledge user groups (stakeholder groups), the individuals directly involved in applying the knowledge in their projects. Front line personnel are often acutely aware of current client demographics and have first-hand evidence of existing knowledge/practice deficits.This enables them to ask important questions that others may not have anticipated. Participation can be a welcome break from their regular responsibilities, an opportunity to learn new skills, an exemplar of how to move evidence into practice, and stimulate professional renewal and inspiration. Involving front line personnel also helps to bridge communications with researchers.
Lessons learned from close researcher-stakeholder partnerships.
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Researchers should move out of their familiar context and into the context of the user group to gain insights for effective knowledge translation.
Literature review and synthesis.
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To improve short-term competitive performance of products in the marketplace, projects to develop incremental new products should involve homogeneous groups of customers.
Survey of 137 product development projects.
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When a client (stakeholder) is involved in the knowledge translation process, the practitioner may solicit, validate and integrate client-supplied knowledge (about the client’s situation and environment) into the overall knowledge translation process.
Application of Graham’s Knowledge-to-Action Process model in occupational therapy.
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When a practitioner is involved in a knowledge translation process, they may supplement the new (research-based) knowledge with knowledge drawn from past professional experience, training and discourse.
Application of Graham’s Knowledge-to-Action Process model in occupational therapy.
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When identifying a target market and marketing strategy for a product that is directed at a stigmatized segment, the following techniques may prove helpful: Identify trends using national survey data; survey individuals to gather perceptions; interview experts for advice; review competitive landscape and differentiate product from alternatives; identify alternative market segments; use after-sales surveys to identify desired product changes.
Case Study.
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When knowledge translation process involves collaboration with the client (stakeholder), interactions with the client can shape the knowledge translation process before research is even accessed.
Application of Graham’s Knowledge-to-Action Process model in occupational therapy.
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When operating at higher levels of responsive market orientation, ensure that any proactive market orientation activities are at lower levels to increase new product program performance. When operating at higher levels of proactive market orientation, use lower levels of responsive market orientation.
Survey. There was a significant effect found on new product program performance when both forms of market orientation (responsive and proactive) were simultaneously engaged under varying degrees.
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Secondary findings

Barriers

Challenges in developer/user collaboration include: motivating the developers, identifying appropriate users, obtaining access to users, motivating the users, and deriving benefits from user contacts when established.
Source: Case studies. In: Kujala, S. (2008)

Documentation of external knowledge may not be in a useful format for finding a solution to the problem at hand.
Source: Argote, 1999. In: Marsh, S. J., & Stock, G. N. (2006)

Failure to anticipate or react to technological threats can inhibit success.
Source: Foster, R. N., 1986; Cooper, A. C., & Schendel, D., 1976. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Financial evaluation dilemma — Flimsy data may result in the elimination of potentially successful projects. However, failure to evaluate at an early stage (using any and all available data) results in new product development failure.
Source: Hayes & Abernathy, 1980; Hayes & Garvin, 1982; Pearson, 1986. In: Neale, C.W. (1994)

Obstacles to obtaining external information could stem from a company's inability to recognize, assimilate and apply external knowledge, poor absorptive capacity.
Source: Cohen & Levinthal, 1990; Zahra & George, 2002. In: Marsh, S. J., & Stock, G. N. (2006)

Two studies identified the principal causes of new product failure as ineffective product marketing and poor market research.
Source: Hopkins, 1980; Cooper, 1975. In: Zirger, B.J., & Maidique, M.A. (1990)

Carriers

A technological strategy or product innovation charter should be used, and should consider the current stages of an organization's main technology and the states of competing technology. The plan or charter should also consider the target business arenas; objectives of the product innovation; specific program of activities; the degree of innovation sought; and any special conditions or restrictions on the activity.
Source: Crawford, C. M., 1980; Baker, M. R., & Pound, W. H., 1964. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Actively involving knowledge users as partners in the research process is a strong predictor that the research findings will be used and that the research endeavor overall will achieve a greater impact.
Source: Lomas (2000, 2007); Denis (2003); Ross (2003); Kothari (2005); Minkler (2005). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Annual community forums can be an effective way to engage a community. Forums can be targeted at prioritizing research actions or on knowledge transfer related to research results. Common objectives are to facilitate mutual learning and collaboration among research and community members and to improve research outcomes and the dissemination of research findings by providing knowledge transfer around the policy and research process to the community. Typically, forums are conducted from half to a full day and include 80–100 research knowledge producers and users.
Source: Birdsell (2002); Dunnett (2004); Williams (2005). In: Williams, A., Holden, B., Krebs, P., Muhajarine, N., Waygood, K.,Randall, J. & Spence, C. (2008)

Early and ongoing involvement of relevant decision makers (knowledge users) in the conceptualization and conduct of a research study can be a strong predictor of its utilization.
Source: Lomas (2000). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Employ competitive product profiling to make comparisons with key competitors. Measures should include functional performance, acquisition cost, ease of use, operating cost, reliability, serviceability, and system compatibility.
Source: Fusfeld, A. R., 1978. In: Roberts, E. B. (2007)

Involving stakeholders throughout the research cycle may improve their investment in the research.
Source: Martens (2005). In: Jansson, S. M., Benoit, C., Casey, L., Phillips, R., & Burns, D. (2010)

Knowledge brokers are a potential strategy for moving knowledge to action. The rationale for knowledge brokers is the need to provide an intermediary who could facilitate collaborations between researchers and research users and find research evidence to shape decisions, be able to assess this evidence, interpret it and adapt it to circumstances and identify emerging management and policy issues that research could help inform. Knowledge of marketing and communication and the capacity to span boundaries and understand the potentially disparate worlds that researchers and knowledge users live in is also needed. Based on this skill set, individuals with diverse experience in both the research and decision or policy-making worlds or organizations whose mandate is to span these worlds would be ideal knowledge brokers. From this description, it can be concluded that knowledge brokering is certainly not new. Relationship brokers exist in most organizations and sectors. What is new, however, are growing calls to recognize and formalize this role in the KT process not only to evaluate its effectiveness but also to capitalize on the benefits it can bring to the process while also learning more about its potential drawbacks
Source: Lawrence (2006); Lomas (1993, 2007); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2003, 2004); Lyons (2006); Dobbins (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Knowledge translation activities benefit from involvement of stakeholders early in the research process and establishing effective working relationships with them. Where possible, provide opportunities for in-person meetings.
Source: Roos (1999); Lomas(2000); Davis (1996). In: Bowen, S., Martens, P. & The Need to Know Team (2005)

Marketing Resources, Skills & Activities: Proper execution of marketing activities is correlated to product success — with some evidence that products generated through market pull (reaction to unmet consumer need) are more successful than those generated through technology push approaches.
Source: Calantone & Cooper (1981). In: Calantone, R.J., diBenedetto, C.A. (1988)

Networks, including communities of practice, knowledge networks, and soft networks, are potentially effective mechanisms for knowledge dissemination and application because their principal purpose is to connect people who might not otherwise have an opportunity to interact, enable dialog, stimulate learning, and capture and diffuse knowledge. A community of practice is a group of people who share a common concern, a set of problems, or interest in a topic and who come together to fulfill both individual and group goals usually focused on improving professional practice. Although communities of practice tend to be relatively informal, a knowledge network is a more formal community consisting of groups of experts from different fields who come together around a common goal or issue. Finally, a soft network is a large referral system whereby members sign onto a LISTSERV primarily for the purpose of making connections. Each type of network can play a role in the dissemination of knowledge.
Source: Birdsell (2003); Wenger (2002); Cambridge (2009); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Strive to ensure that the research project has direct relevance to the targeted knowledge users. One way to promote relevance is to engage in collaborative research, drawing upon the expertise of researchers and stakeholders.
Source: Lomas (2000); Davis (1996); Mohrman (2004). In: Bowen, S., Martens, P. & The Need to Know Team (2005)

Success factors for integrated knowledge translation (which brings together researchers and knowledge users for the purpose of generating, exchanging, and applying knowledge to understand and address an issue) include: a process to develop a shared perspective, common language, and common understanding about the issue that stakeholders will be focusing on; a plan for collaboration with explicit description of roles and responsibilities and a commitment to regularly assess its effectiveness; participants with competencies and experiences in building, negotiating, and maintaining effective research and knowledge translation collaborations; a strategy for ensuring that trusting relationships among stakeholders are maintained and conflicts are resolved appropriately when they arise; and institutional support, including incentives in both academic and knowledge user environments, could also facilitate success.
Source: CIHR Institute of Health Services and Policy Research (2006); Denis (2003); Ross (2003); Kothari (2005); Minkler (2005); Ducharme (2003); CIHR Institute of Population (2006); Walter (2003); Golden-Biddle (2003); Roussos (2000); Cousins (1996); Watson (2007); Israel (1998); Butterfoss (2006); Parry (2009). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

The existence of an overarching relationship (historical or longstanding) between a researcher and relevant decision makers (knowledge users), where research utilization is only one activity in the larger, ongoing relationship, can be important for the utilization of research findings.
Source: Goering (2003); Mohrman (2001); Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2002); Golden-Biddle (2003). In: Ginsburg, L.R., Lewis, S., Zackheim, L. & Casebeer, A. (2207)

Timing and timeliness can increase (and poor timing or lack of timeliness can decrease) the prospects for research use.
Source: Lavis (2005). In: Lavis, John (2006)

To mitigate power inequalities and transcend the different cognitive and cultural worlds of participating stakeholders, an independent facilitator should guide the process and fulfill an intermediary role as a knowledge broker.
Source: Sperling & Ashby (2001); Hargadon (2002). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Web-enabled market research or e-voice of the customer could improve product developers ability to ascertain customers reactions throughout the entire design process and even monitor the product as it is being used.
Source: Coulter, et al. (2002). In: Buyukozkan, G, A. Byakasoglu, T. Dereli (2007)

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the appeal of new knowledge to a potential knowledge user is how the new knowledge is communicated to the potential knowledge user — the effectiveness of communication channels used. As one example, early awareness-raising through interpersonal networks can enhance the speed of circulation and the social mechanisms that promote receptivity to the new knowledge.
Source: Brown, (1968); Van de Ven, Polley, Garud & Venkatarum, (1999); Wejnert, (2002); Valente, (1995); Brink et. al, (1995). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the process and outcome is the social system — the contextual space in which the knowledge is expected to be used (e.g., individual, institutional, political, and environmental factors). As one example, one set of factors that can determine how and if new knowledge will reach its intended audience is the past history of potential knowledge users (e.g., previous practices, the felt needs or problems experienced, their innovativeness, and the norms of the social system in which they are embedded).
Source: (Damanpour, 1991); (Kimberly & Evanisko, 1981); (Tornatzy & Fleischer, 1990); (Wolfe, 1994); (Brown, 1981); (Mohr, 1969); (Moch&Morse, 1977); (Abrahamson, 1991). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

Models

(2) The Technology Acceptance Model asserts usefulness/perceived usefulness drives a user’s decision to adopt new technology. In: Davis, F.D., 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13, 319–340. 
Case-based research
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Methods

Beta testing — Concept testing in which a product idea is described to customers and reactions obtained.
Source: Dolan (1993). In: Dolan, RJ & Matthews, JM (1993)

During the definition phase, input data and information about customer preferences and competitive products are used to finalize key specifications of the product such as its target customers, functionality, and features.
Source: Bacon et al. (1994). In: Bhattacharya, S., & Krishnan, V. (1998)

For demand articulation, dialogue between end-users and producers of knowledge and information, as well as other relevant stakeholders, should take place throughout the innovation process.
Source: Douthwaite et al (2001). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Listening to the customer's needs early in the product development process has been identified as being critical for eventual market success.
Source: Griffin & Hauser, 1993; Hauer & Clausing, 1988; Nayak & Chen, 1993. In: Datar, S., Jordan, C.C., Kekre, S., Rajiv, S. & Srinivasan, K. (1997)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been found to integrate KT with the innovation development and adoption process. Specifically, the PAR process enables participants to take an innovation and adapt it to their context, to engage in critical reflection to achieve this adaptation, and to work behind the scenes to encourage involvement and commitment.
Source: Waterman, et al. (2007). In: McWilliam, C. L., Kothari, A., Ward-Griffin, C., Forbes, D., Leipert, B. & South West Community Care Access Centre Home Care (2009)

STP (segmentation, targeting, and positioning) — a 3 step process for developing marketing strategies 
Source: Lilien & Rangaswamy, 1997. In: Natter, M. & Mild, A. (2003)

Some areas of innovation lend themselves better to participatory development than others, and different types of innovation (incremental vs. radical) call for particular competences on the part of participating end users.
Source: Sumberg et al (2003); Lettl (2007). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

The market research methods most frequently cited by Fortune 500 companies include: focus groups (used by 68% of companies surveyd); limited roll out (42%); concept tests (26%); show tests and clinics (19%); attitude and usage studies (19%); conjoint analysis (15%); Delphi (9%); quality function deployment (9%); home usage tests (9%); product life-cycle models (8%); and synectics (8%).
Source: Mahajan and Wind, (1992). In: May-Plumlee, T. & Little, T.J. (2006)

Tips:

Among computer and medical equipment manufacturers, successful new products incorporated greater use of market information in the NPD process, while failed products used less.
Source: Ottum & Moore, 1997. In: Suwannapron, P., Speece, M (2003)

Customer input during the idea/concept development stage of new product development is more effective in enhancing product quality than in subsequent stages, such as product design.
Source: Sethi (2000). In: Lukas, B.A., & Menon, A. (2004)

Focus on identifying a clear product concept with unique benefits, as well as the quality and cost of production in order to succeed with new product development performance.
Source: Brown & Eisenhardt (1995). In: de Weerd-Nederhof, P. C., Visscher, K., Altena, J., & Fisscher, O. A. M. (2008)

For accuracy while surveying, use key informants (who know more) rather than averaging data from multi-sources.
Source: Huber and Power, 1985. In: Samra, Y.M., Lynn, G.S. & Reilly, R.R. (2008)

In studies of new product successes, researchers concluded that satisfying consumer wants was key to developing successful new products. Chay (1089) related the new product failure rate to inadequate expenditures on strategic market analysis and on assessment of consumer needs and wants.
Source: Coopper, (1994); Calantone et al., (1995); and Chay (1989). In: May-Plumlee, T. & Little, T.J. (2006)

Montoya-Weiss and Calantone (1994) provide an excellent summary of a number of key quantitative investigations at the project level and identify a myriad of variables impacting on successful new product development. They conclude that the four most frequently utilized factors in product-level success and failure studies are: (1) proficiency of technological activities; (2) proficiency of market related activities, (3) product advantage; and (4) protocol development.
Source: Montoya-Weiss and Calantone (1994). In: Reid, M. (2001)

Organizational strength (strategy, skills, culture) as driver of new product success
Source: Heynard and Szymanski, 2001; Montoya-Weiss ad Caklantone, 1994). In: Troy, L. Hirunyawipada, T. & Paswan, A. (2008)

Research-based knowledge is not used as a can-opener is used. Generic knowledge is seldom taken directly off the shelf and applied without some sort of vetting or tailoring to the local context.
Source: Humberman M. (1987). In: Graham, I.D., Logan, J., Harrison, M.B., Straus, S.E., Tetroe J., Caswell, W. et. al. (2006)

The inclusion of stakeholders early in the design process focuses on the "user requirements" element of concurrent engineering and mitigates the risk of numerous user-generated design changes later in the development process.
Source: Forsberg, Mooz, & Cotterman (1996). In: Powell, R.A., & Buede, D.M. (2006)

The sole act of rendering research results understandable by stakeholders may be of limited value. Real benefits are often derived from the application of research results that respond to a specific stakeholder need.
Source: Davis (1996); Golden-Biddle (2003). In: Bowen, S., Martens, P. & The Need to Know Team (2005)

There is universal agreement that there should be a strong market for a new product under consideration or for the outcome of an R&D project.
Source: Rothwell et all, (1974). In: Balachandra, R., Friar, J.H. (1997)

Understanding customer needs and preferences is a key factor in new product success.
Source: Cooper and Kleinschmidt, 1995, 1996. In: Joshi, A. W. & Sharma, S. (2004)