Step 2.1

Define intended outcome as a technology-based innovation: either a new/improved product in commercial marketplace, or a new/improved process supporting product creation and delivery.

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Categorizing various actors only according to profit-seeking and not-for-profits does not help scholars to understand their respective motivations for social or economic development goals.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Enterprises rarely innovate without regard for economics, profit, etc. Orphan conditions are under-addressed due to lack of financial incentive.  
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Some solutions (cancer medications) present unintended consequential effects (drug resistance) in users. 
Research conclusions from conceptual framework 
(View full citation)

Outcomes of R&D partnerships are complicated and often produce indirect, hard to measure effects. 
Project data analysis
(View full citation)

Besides the actual cost of supporting participation, members and would-be members report other barriers to participating in research networks: burden of reporting, insufficient time to participate, reputational costs, and opportunity costs.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Outcomes from academic research are subtle, widespread and therefore hard to quantify. It is difficult to measure academic contributions to industry.
Case-based research
(View full citation)

Reporting financial outcomes only presents an incomplete representation of success or failure of a whole project or product.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

R&D Project planning is influenced by the norms and values of key actors within the sponsor organization. Researchers view the sponsor as the Customer rather than viewing the target beneficiary as the Customer.
Case study of agricultural R&D system within The Netherlands.
(View full citation)

When executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “replicability” of the research findings, especially in their setting. Researchers should clearly communicate “replicability.”
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
(View full citation)

When organizational executives deliberate about the value of applying research in their organization, one of the factors they often consider is the “scalability” of the research findings. Researchers should clearly communicate “scalability.”
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
(View full citation)

Carriers

Examining economic, cultural, policy, and innovative progress works to quantify research collaborations that are not commercial or technology based.
Findings of data analysis
(View full citation)

Increase relative product value for multiple stakeholders with conflicting needs while simultaneously minimizing the need for end users to change behaviors.  
Case-based research
(View full citation)

Innovations have three components: an innovative opportunity  consists of the following three components:(a)an economic value for someone; (b) mobilization of resources; and (c)the ability to appropriate at least some part of the economic value of the innovation, by the actor pursuing the opportunity.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Non-financial performance measures often correlate with financial performance. This is useful for forecasting success. Customer satisfaction ratings and website performance are such metrics.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

king measures to strategic initiative reduces the common measures bias in evaluating performance.
Literature review findings 
(View full citation)

Models

Knowledge sharing in university-business collaboration (UBC) occurs under both transactional and relational governance. Knowledge sharing in a UBC includes knowledge combination, learning, and copoiesis (co-creation). This process contributes to achievement of joint goals.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

The product definition is refined in real-time using customer information resulting in improvements in the product's attractiveness and sales potential. Risk aversion of the firm is modeled using the certainty equivalent of the firm's profit. Using this model, it is found that early definition is optimal only in a limited set of situation: when the market conditions do not experience significant uncertainty, the firm is not risk-averse, its development team is inflexible, the specifications have high integration needs, and the market is price (not performance) sensitive. If any of these conditions do not hold and the firm forces an early definition, it would earn less than optimal profits and considerably lower margins.
Case Study. Researchers developed model of real time definition.
(View full citation)

Methods

Good technical and commercial issue management requires more than good process. Experienced multi-functional teams, that address issues proactively with management understanding and support, are equally important. An open dialogue at the start of each project is a good method for reinforcing respective roles and responsibilities.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

NPD may be characterized as representing incremental changes to existing products, or radical changes. The radical changes are called New to Market products, which then contain three levels depending on the novelty of the technology: Type 1 — Same technology as currently used by the firm; Type 2 — New technology to the Firm but not to the World; Type 3 — New technology to the World. The Type has implications for the company's ability to accomplish the project. Type 2 offers SME's a middle ground where technologies that are not new to the world or even superior to other technologies, but that meet the needs of a neglected consumer group, but transferred in from other fields of application.
Case studies of five firms.
(View full citation)

New products must engage consumer interest, so being unique in the sense of new or novel is insufficient. Beyond that, companies must strive for uniqueness in a form that is relevant to the target audience, that has utility in the context of their needs. Doing so generates interest among the target audience. It provides four related benefits: 1) Increased interest in the offering from the related field or industry; 2) Easier to create effective and focused advertising; 3) Usually lower cannibalization — that is the company is less likely to introduce internally competing products since this one is focused on the target audience; 4) The product offering is more believable to the target audience because it is presented in terms and a context they understand.
Experience as head of new product development and innovation in a corporation.
(View full citation)

Performance Drivers: One is the Quality of Execution. Eight activities distinguish best from worse performers: 1) Conducting a post-launch review (8.2); 2) Assessment of product's value to business (2.1); 3) Test market or trial sell to a limited set of customers (7.13); 4) Concept testing to determine customer reaction to product and gauging purchase intent before Development begins (4.11); 5) Idea Generation (1.3); 6) Customer tests of products under real-life conditions (6.3); 7) Detailed market study/research or Voice of the Customer (4.3, 4.13); 8) Pre-launch business analysis (7.7, 7.8, 7.9).
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
(View full citation)

The firm involved in NPD should consider its ability to conduct the necessary work from three perspectives: 1) Paths — the future options still open given the constraints introduced by previous choices such as mergers and or acquisitions of resources; 2) Positions — the assets of the organization in terms of ownership, technology, industrial systems, finance, organizational structure, market position and organizational boundaries. 3) Processes — management and organizational mechanisms which enable co-ordination and integration, learning and reconfiguration.
Case studies of five firms.
(View full citation)

The range of participants in R&D is broad and requires someone to oversee the integration of all the elements that constitute the innovation process. All of the external actors that create value or knowledge may join in R&D, including customers, suppliers and distributors, with all due consideration of the span of control and confidentiality issues.
Author analysis of prior literature and application within an industrial setting.
(View full citation)

Tips

University professors value research which they can publish to further their careers whereas businesses are incentivized to keep discoveries private in the spirit of competition. 
Survey findings
(View full citation)

New product development speed will be improved for radical products when product concepts are clearly specified. Alternatively, for incremental products, some vagueness increases speed.
Survey of 75 new product development projects.
(View full citation)

Test commercial assumptions (e.g., pricing and sales forecasts) early — the validation/scale-up stage should include testing of all key project premises, commercial as well as technical.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

Secondary findings

Carriers

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the appeal of new knowledge to a potential knowledge user is its clarity (absence of perceived or unnecessary complexity). Generally, adoption strength increases with the understandability and implementability of the new knowledge.
Source: (Rogers, 2003). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the appeal of new knowledge to a potential knowledge user is the compatibility of the new knowledge with respect to past practices, current values, and existing needs. Generally, adoption strength increases as the fit with the current context increases.
Source: (Rogers, 2003). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

When planning, implementing or evaluating a knowledge translation (innovation) process, diffusion theory suggests that one of the factors that can influence the process and outcome is the social system — the contextual space in which the knowledge is expected to be used (e.g., individual, institutional, political, and environmental factors). As one example, one set of factors that can determine how and if new knowledge will reach its intended audience is the past history of potential knowledge users (e.g., previous practices, the felt needs or problems experienced, their innovativeness, and the norms of the social system in which they are embedded).
Source: (Damanpour, 1991); (Kimberly & Evanisko, 1981); (Tornatzy & Fleischer, 1990); (Wolfe, 1994); (Brown, 1981); (Mohr, 1969); (Moch&Morse, 1977); (Abrahamson, 1991). In: Ashley, S.R. (2009)

Methods

During the definition phase, input data and information about customer preferences and competitive products are used to finalize key specifications of the product such as its target customers, functionality, and features.
Source: Bacon et al. (1994). In: Bhattacharya, S., & Krishnan, V. (1998)

Tips

(2) Measure cultural outcomes using eight channels: performances, exhibitions, publications, consultation, access, learning, e-engagement, and other. From AHRC, 2009b. Shaping Metrics for HEI Cultural Engagement – Knowledge Transfer, AHRC Project Report. Findings of data analysis
(View full citation)

Focus on identifying a clear product concept with unique benefits, as well as the quality and cost of production in order to succeed with new product development performance.
Source: Brown & Eisenhardt (1995). In: de Weerd-Nederhof, P. C., Visscher, K., Altena, J., & Fisscher, O. A. M. (2008)

New products should meet customer needs/wants and there should be a good understanding of the market.
Source: Gaynor (1990). In: Balachandra, R., Friar, J.H. (1997)

New to Market products can be defined as offering unprecedented functionality, or a five to ten-fold performance improvement when compared to existing products within the marketplace.
Source: Collarelli & O'Connor, 1998. In: Mosey, S. (2005)

To be successful, radical new products frequently require associated services and familiar interfaces that are easily used by consumers.
Source: McIntyre, 1988. In: Sahay, A. & Riley, D. (2003)