Stage 2: Project Scoping

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Material-related failures are multi-faceted and include mechanical failure, corrosion, material interaction, material chemistry and bio-compatibility. While the mechanical aspects are considered, issues related to fundamental material properties are often neglected. Even simply failure modes can cause major disruptions to a project if left unaddressed or discovered too late.
Case studies and author experience.
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Placing creative people in NPD roles as analysts without providing them with proper training and coaching in disciplined NPD processes is only getting it half-right and likely destroy value rather than creating it. Forcing business discipline on the creative mind is a necessary element to consider.
Interview Survey. Study of 69 analysts evaluating 267 early-stage NPD projects.
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The priorities established by R&D sponsors do not necessarily reflect the highest priority needs of the target beneficiaries. Instead of representing the short-term (tactical) needs of the farmers, the sponsor's R&D priorities may instead represent long-term (strategic) needs as perceived by key actors within the sponsor agency.
Case study of agricultural R&D within The Netherlands.
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Carriers

Early stages of NPD require creativity because early ideation requires revision through branching thought processes. Identify people with high levels of creativity (reliably measured with standard instruments), and train them the Stage-Gate methods. The overall speed and productivity of typical NPD processes can be increased nine-fold over standard activity by people with low levels of creativity. Forcing business discipline on the creative mind is a key combination.
Interview survey. Study of 69 analysts evaluating 267 early-stage NPD projects.
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Policy Implications of Findings: In order to foster novelty of innovation in manufacturing firms, policy makers should continue to provide incentives regarding R&D, collaborative arrangements, and more generally, to provide a large variety of government support programs.
Secondary analysis of data gathered in a national survey of 5,455 firms in Canada.
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Policy Implications of Findings: The level of novelty in innovations can be increased via policies that promote stronger linkages between firms and government laboratories and universities, whereas incremental changes might be more efficiently influenced by stronger linkages between firms and market sources of information.
Secondary analysis of data gathered in a national survey of 5,455 firms in Canada.
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Subject experts, such as material scientists, can screen different material technologies and select the best solution for the intended device. Interactive and parallel material-device design strategies are advantageous in the Concept Phase.
Case studies and author experience.
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Three elements that did not appear on any academic NPD plans appeared on all five corporate NPD plans: 1) Define the market and its growth potential; 2) Actual versus planned cost evaluation; 3) Determining of changing customer needs/market requirements. Perhaps the Technology Transfer Offices (TTO's) could support academic inventors by providing these elements. In fact, 51% of TTO's support #1, 10% support #3 but none support #2 at present.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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Models

Consider adopting the NexGen Stage-Gate process, where the NPD process has been streamlined by removing all the non-value added activites. This NexGen process is also more flexible and adaptable, where steps and stages overlap.
Authors' research experience. This new process has been borrowed from lean manufacturing.
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In situations that are experienced as “fuzzy”, it is recommended to first determine whether this is caused by unwanted ambiguity, i.e. multiple and conflicting interpretations, pertaining either to the product, the market, the NPD process or the organisation’s resources. If so, they should explicate these interpretations and their underlying assumptions as hypotheses and test them individually. Identifying and testing underlying assumptions at an early stage of the NPD project will provide the most efficient reduction of ambiguity.
Four case studies of new product development.
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NPD project teams have a tendency to get immersed in the product's underlying technology during the Development Phase, and sometimes even bypass understanding of market conditions and commercialization requirements until technical success is assured. Not addressing all three early and often leads to negative consequences in the NPD process.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Practice spiral development, where a virtual prototype is created very early in the process to get immediate feedback from consumers. The build-test-feedback cycle is done quickly and often creating a loop type process.
Authors' research experience. Top performing companies use spiral development.
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Pre-Development Phases (1 — 3), along with Supplier and Customer involvement in NPD process provide two benefits: 1) Increase product quality capability; 2) Accelerate pace of development by reducing uncertainty and false starts.
Survey of 85 firms manufacturing industrial goods for the mechanical and electronic sectors.
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Methods

As expected, R&D, collaborative arrangements, large firms, use of a large variety of government support programs, and operation in industries of high technological intensity had a positive effect on level of novelty in innovations.
Secondary analysis of data gathered in a national survey of 5,455 firms in Canada.
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Based on manufacturer's policy, the CORE instrument can be applied at different stages including design, fabrication or product assembly.
Conceptual model, instrument creation and application in case study settings.
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Best Practices concerning quality of market information at the point NPD is initiated: 1) Information on customer needs, wants and problems. 2) Competitive information (products, pricing and strategies). 3) Information on the customer's reaction to the proposed product (degree of liking or purchase intent). 4) Information on customer price sensitivity for the new product. 5) Data on expected non-revenue performance of the product. 6) Data on market size and potential. 7) Expected sales revenue from the new product.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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Best Practices concerning the requirement for a sharp, early product definition prior to initiating the NPD process: 1) The benefits to be delivered to the customer — the value proposition — clearly defined. 2) The target market defined — the segment at which the product will be targeted. 3) The positioning strategy defined in the eyes of the customers versus competitive products. 4) The product concept defined — what the product will be and do. 5) Establish firm product specifications to avoid unstable specifications and scope creep which can extend time and cost of NPD process. 6) The product's features, requirements and specifications defined. 7) Using a teaming contract between the project team and management to define the product, the project and corporate expectations before the NPD process begins.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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Companies involved in NPD partnerships with universities share three traits: 1) Internal R&D facilities; 2) Collaborate with other firms in their industry; 3) Investment of time in the academic interactions. They also correlate positively with high patent counts and geographic proximity to university resources.
Pilot survey of 63 manufacturers.
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Comparing Academic and Corporate inventors, each identified the process elements within three categories: 1) Most Critical: Academics — none/Corporate — customer needs analysis. 2) Most Time Consuming: Academics - documentation of design work in technical memos/Corporate — Beta testing. 3) Most Problematic: Academics — technical problems arising during development; testing, data analysis, evaluation, and reporting/Corporate — Defining the market and its growth potential.
Eleven structured interviews involving five academics, five corporate and one hybrid approach, where each mapped their individual approach to NPD drawing from a set of Stage and Step activities.
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Cross-Functional Teamwork — In the Scoping Stage (market opportunity analysis), the most effective cross-functional pairing is between the R&D team and the Marketing team, because it facilitates linking a deep understanding of the target need with the firm's technological capabilities, which reduces market uncertainty. Having the R&D engage Manufacturing, or engaging all three teams at once, is counter-productive in the Scoping stage.
Survey of 236 managers at 16 firms.
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Early and comprehensive planning is essential to downstream success, including: A clear outcome from each stage, relationships and risks between stages; secured financing and realistic timeframes for each stage; effective process monitoring instruments; arrangements between participating teams; diverse linguistic, organizational and professional affiliations within each team.
Experience in industrial management.
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Exxon/Mobil lists a key lesson as: Include significant marketing resources early in the NPD cycle. This helps avoid commercial failures that were championed only by the technical side of the company.
Industry experience.
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Four Best Practices in the NPD process are: 1) Emphasis on pre-Development homework. The fuzzy front end of NPD is considered most problematic. This is where the new product idea is fleshed out into a clear product definition; that the magnitude of the opportunity is assessed, and the business case constructed, and the action plan for the NPD process is mapped. How much homework is enough? On average, twelve percent of the project's total cost (labor, material, equipment) is spend on Up-front Homework before the Development begins.
A quantitative survey of 105 business units, supported by team's experience in NPD modeling, consultation, application and analysis.
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In general, the earliest four stages of the NPD process are done the least well and provide the greatest opportunity for improvement. These include the vision and strategy development, as well as the pre-development NPD activity where the initial concept is shaped, along with the preliminary and detailed analysis.
Interview survey. Study of 69 analysts evaluating 267 early-stage NPD projects.
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Innovations embodying more radical changes in products or processes require more research-based information than incremental changes that can be implemented with market sources of information.
Secondary analysis of data gathered in a national survey of 5,455 firms in Canada.
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Intensity of planning is the most influential factor (in new product development project success). The value of intensive project planning is hardly affected by technological newness, as both interaction effects are very small and not significant.
Survey of 475 reserach and development projects
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Maintaining sufficient lead time over competitors has a positive impact on market share. Similarly, lagging has a negative impact on market share. Lead and lag time is particularly significant during volume production and concept generation stages, and less significant during the prototype development stage.
Survey. High statistical significance.
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Market Information Processing — incremental changes in new products generate low demand for market information processing, since the market is fairly well defined and known based on prior analysis. Market information processing demand is highest for moderately innovative new products where teams require customer needs information to guide development and to validate their concepts. Radically new projects lack a frame of reference for customers, so there is now demand for market information processing and instead NPD relies on intuition and exploratory integration of available information.
Survey of 166 firms.
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Must be aware that examining product effectiveness as compared to productivity outcomes or marketplace performance will correlate higher with NPD success and cross functional integration
Meta-analysis. β = .185, p < .01
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NPD begins when there is a commercial target and concept in mind that is strictly development and not research. Activity that precedes NPD is called Knowledge Build where project managers need flexibility to conduct research. For technologies and products completely new to the company, the Knowledge Build team may present the project's potential in a qualitative fashion. The technical leadership will make a Gate decision about sponsoring that research project. If no, the budgeted resources go back to other Knowledge Build activities. If yes, then the team develops the technology through the next stage. If the technology is far enough along, the team transfer the project to the business side and begins the normal Stage/Gate NPD activities.
Industry experience.
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Originality in the product idea generation process can be enhanced by encouraging the extensive use of analogies, while providing no external benchmarks as examples. When benchmarks are necessary to stimulate creative thinking, it is important to avoid similar (near) analogies, and instead apply unrelated (far) analogies.
Empirical analysis of three sets of problem solving teams to examine the role of analogies, and to assess the effectiveness of different approaches.
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Senior Management to NPD Committee — envisioning — The communication that occurs in this stage can be explained using ‘ engagement ’ capability. Engagement capability encompasses commitment formation, motivating, enthusing and path finding. It is this capability that the CEOs and GMs interviewed talk about in order for the NPD process to occur successfully.
Case study analysis
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Substantial research on user-orientation in NPD is concerned with maintaining a market orientation during the conduct of development processes, which focuses on the the expressed needs of current customers. Since this may lead to a successive series of incremental innovations, it is also important to maintain a learning orientation which challenges assumptions and integrates new information.
Literature review.
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Survey of 236 managers at 16 firms. Cross-Functional Teamwork in NPF — The study considers the relative value of various combinations of three organizational groups: 1) R&D; 2) manufacturing; 3) marketing, in cross-functional teamwork. Results show success depends on function-specific and stage-specific patterns of teamwork in five ways: 1) Different NPD stages suggest different combinations of teams; 2) The importance of a given function in integration depends on the stage; 3) Joint involvement between pairs of groups is generally more beneficial than among all three; 4) Effective cross- functional integration requires attention to paired communication between hub and non-hub functions; 5) The integration patterns suggested here do not generate conflicts across objectives or between groups.
Survey of 236 managers at 16 firms.
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Ten methods used in various Stages of the NPD Process are listed in the Appendix and discussed in the paper: 1) Brainstorming; 2) Morphological analysis; 3) Synetics; 4) Delphi Method; 5) Focus Group; 6) Product Life Cycle; 7) Concept Test; 8) In-home Use Test; 9) Quality Function Deployment; 10) Limited Roll-Out. While most manufacturers are familiar with many of these methods, they report using them in various and sometimes wrong stages — so they are not applying them properly and in a focused manner.
Literature review and survey of forty-five manufacturers.
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The Idea-generation and concept-testing stages are often called the fuzzy front end of NPD, because they often lack the typically well-defined processes, reliable information and proven decision rules found in latter stages. However, the decisions made in these early stages can lock in most of the downstream costs for manufacturing and marketing support.
Empirical analysis of three sets of problem solving teams to examine the role of analogies, and to assess the effectiveness of different approaches.
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There are four categories of information sources: 1) Internal; 2) Market; 3) Research; 4) Generally available. Firms that access a larger variety of sources tend to generate more novel innovations than firms that access one or few sources.
Secondary analysis of data gathered in a national survey of 5,455 firms in Canada.
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To capture the actual activities of product innovation, it is necessary to distinguish between two types of planning: 1) Pre-decision business planning and 2) Post-decision project planning. At the beginning of the NPD process, information is gathered with the aim of evaluating the innovative idea and developing an initial understanding of the business case. This early-stage planning involves a number of scanning and analyzing activities that can be subsumed under the term business planning.
Analysis of data collected from 132 NPD projects.
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To ensure compliance with the FDA's Quality System Regulation, medical device manufacturers should use a structured product development process to instill discipline in the product life cycle. A hierarchical approach arranges activity from Stages (phases) to Steps to Activities and finally to Tasks. Each Stage has a unique theme and set of deliverables. For example: Stage 0 — Concept Research. This stage identifies new market opportunities, determines customer needs and conducts high-level evaluations of the opportunity and its strategic fit. This activity concludes with the management approval of an integrated business plan for the project, which is then updated at the conclusion of each subsequent stage.
Summary of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulations for the research and development process underlying Medical Device manufacturing.
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When measuring the success of NPD, use objective measures, such as sales or profits, instead of subjective measures
Meta-analysis. β = -.381, p < .01 (see Table 2 –H9)
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e-R&D: More than one third of businesses use cyberspace for everything from finance to virtual prototyping. Penetration in corporate research is greater with 80% of engineers using the Internet for gathering procurement information, and 95% of researchers use the Internet to improve their design and development work.
Literature review, author's experience and case studies.
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Measures

A sample of measurement items for new product development proficiency and organizational integration are shared. All items are rated on a seven-point Likert scale. See tables within the text for actual measurement items.
Survey of 45 firms in heavy construction industry.
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Idea Generation in NPD applies multiple tools including three creative (Brainstorming; Synectics; Morphological Analysis) and seven non-creative (Focus Group; Interview/Survey; Observation of Users; Delphi Method; Scenario; Expert Opinion; Product Life Cycle).
Literature review and survey of forty-five manufacturers.
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Obtain expert opinions to inform early go/ no-go decisions. Experts can provide insight regarding changing market conditions and potential consumer acceptance of products. However, managers must be aware of the potential for biases.
Literature Review
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Stages 2 & 4 — Plan & Specify involves a very lengthy checklist of steps and activities, covering the entire range of market, technology, manufacturing, legal and personnel issues, which reinforces the need for comprehensive multi-functional team planning. See Table 3 for the checklist.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
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Survey consumers to obtain purchase intentions. Managers must note that changes in the marketplace and long spans of time between testing and product release may impact the reliability of such results.
Literature Review
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Survey consumers to produce multiattribute models that inform the relative importance of product functions and features, as well as its position in the marketplace.
Literature Review
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Table 2 (page 146) lists five categories of intertemporal integration activities, and three levels of NPD performance. Table 2 goes on to list sets of measures appropriate for each.
Conceptual model creation based on literature review.
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The execution of various test protocols is of great important during the early stages. These tests are necessary to evaluate novel technologies, make appropriate design decisions, and gather data to support submissions to regulatory bodies. It is necessary to involved subject experts to define test strategies. Poorly designed test strategies can obstruct the NPD process.
Case studies and author experience.
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Tips

A high-quality new product process is a key factor among successful businesses. However, the process must possess a few key attributes. It must include early technical and market assessments, leading to the development of a business case, prior to the initiation of development activities. It must define all aspects of the product including the market and the product's position within competition. There must be tough go/kill decision points where weak projects are rejected. Quality of execution of the process is paramount, and deliverables for each gate should be pre-defined early on. The process must also be flexible.
Survey of 161 business units.
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Be effective in using certain types of information and different information sources and use cross-functional integration between functions and departments. These practices will lead to higher NPD performance.
Claim was stated based on repsonses from case studies and the literature review.
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Consider that service products benefit more strongly from CFI than goods.
Meta-analysis. Significant moderating effect on CFI-product success relationship when Services are produced (vs. for goods)
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During the engineering of a system, about 20% of the actual life cycle cost for the system has been spent, but about 80% of the life cycle cost of the system is committed based upon the decisions that have been made during the engineering process. Misktakes due to an improper definition of decisions made in this front end of the system life cycle can have substantially negative impacts on the total cost of the system and its success with the users and bill payers.
Case studies and interviews
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Effectively retrieve information from past product development projects and maintain high levels of functional integration to achieve proficiency in product prototype development and product launch.
Survey. Significance found for interaction between functional integration and retrieving for prototype development proficiency (F=6.74, p<.01) and product launch proficiency (F=4.18, p<.05)
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Including manufacturing pesonnel in cross-functional teams early on in the NPD process can be highly beneficial. Enables potential problems to be uncovered and addressed before they become too costly; ensures that production processes will be available to produce selected product features; helps other departments to understand manufacturing capabilities and limitations.
Interviews with four high-tech firms.
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Manufacturing can offer reality checks and alternative solutions when interacting with R&D, product planning, and marketing teams early on.
Interviews wtih four high-tech firms.
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Most of the methods have been developed to deal with specific problems of NPD and thus are meant to be used in specific Stages of the NPD process. Out of ten methods reviewed, all one (Limited Roll-Out) are used in stages for which they are not intended.
Literature review and survey of forty-five manufacturers.
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The odds inherent NPD are shown in the universal success curve as 1 in 300 at idea submission, 1 in 125 after patent granted, 1 in 9 during early stage development, 1 in 4 during major development and still only 1 in 1.7 (60%) at commercial launch, success is almost assuredly not on the original path chosen at the outset of the project. There remains a need for creative and non-linear thinking throughout the NPD process.
Interview survey. Study of 69 analysts evaluating 267 early-stage NPD projects.
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To be accepted in earlier phases of the new product development process, manufacturing personnel must focus on establishing credibility with other business units. This can be done by: planning to satisfy down-stream requests from product planning and design; developing a mutual understanding of expectations for all parties; providing useful cost estimates; and developing a common knowledge base.
Interviews with four high-tech firms.
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Secondary findings

Carriers

Boundary Spanning — external integration can impact innovation speed and frequency by facilitating coordination with boundary groups.
Source: Parthasarthy & Hammond (2002) p.79. In: Koufteros, X., Vonderembse, M. & Jayaram, J. (2005)

Creativity is seen as an important personality trait for NPD analysts because a lack of meaningful product uniqueness has been found to be the number one reason why new products fail.
Source: Crawford (1977). In: Stevens, G., Burley, J., & Divine, R. (1999)

Reducing R&D and Marketing uncertainty during the Planning Stages (NtK Stages 1 — 3), as opposed to during the Development Stages (NtK Stages 4 — 6), has a greater impact on the eventual success of the innovation. Therefore, project teams should allocate more effort in cross-functional information acquisition and processing during the planning stage, that is customary.
Source: Moenart, et al (1995). R&D/marketing communication during the fuzzy front-end. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 42: 243-258.. In: Song, X.M., Thieme, R.J., & Xie, J. (1998)

Models

An NPD Model shows that technical and marketing activities complement each other at each stage of the NPD process, which takes place within an environment defined by the firm, the marketplace, and the nature of the project itself.
Source: Cooper (1980). In: Calantone, R.J., diBenedetto, C.A. (1988)

Companies adopting market orientation understand deeply the explicit and latent needs of their customers, share this information widely throughout the company, and coordinate activities to create superior customer value.
Source: Shapiro, 1988; Kohli & Jaworski, 1990; Narver & Slater, 1990; Deshpande et al, 1993. In: Shum, P., & Lin, G. (2007)

Knowledge sharing in a collaborative environment has been found to positively affect innovation performance, as it facilitates problem solving and reduces the inefficiency of re-inventing already existing solutions.
Source: Nonaka (1991), Leonard-Barton (1992). In: Swink, M., Talluri, S., & Pandejpong, T. (2006)

Methods

Creating user ownership of the R&D process and its outputs, requires early and continued involvement in the entire R&D process.
Source: Johnson et al (2003). In: Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees (2007)

Customer knowledge, customer access, and competitor knowledge are central to the marketing capabilities that must be drawn upon in the NPD process. These capabilities are built on a profound understanding of customer needs and factors that influence these needs.
Source: Kohli & Jaworski (1990). In: Marsh, S.J., & Stock, G.N. (2003)

Firms which have introduced innovations with higher degrees of novelty are more likely than other innovative firms to rely on external sources of information to develop or improve their products or processes.
Source: Tether (2000). In: Amara, N., & Landry, R. (2005)

Innovations are not only determined by factors internal to firms, but also by interactive processes involving relationships between firms with different actors of their environment.
Source: Kline & Rosenberg (1986). In: Amara, N., & Landry, R. (2005)

Several factors help reduce overall NPD time including strategic factors such as reducing product complexity, stating strategic intent, minimizing technical difficulties, and increasing co-development with suppliers.
Source: Griffin (1997a). In: Filippini, Roberto Salmaso, Luigi & Tessarolo, Paolo (2004)

Small high technology firms which have introduced major product and process innovations are more likely than others to rely on external sources regarding science laboratories, universities and public financial institutions.
Source: Romijn & Albu (2001). In: Amara, N., & Landry, R. (2005)

The most significant differences between successful and unsuccessful products lie in the quality of execution of the first few stages of NPD — simply stated, the first few plays of the game seem to decide the outcome. Attention should be focused on the first three stages where we determine what should be developed.
Source: Cooper (1988); Cooper (1993). In: Stevens, G., Burley, J., & Divine, R. (1999)

There are multiple strategies for generating new product ideas including benchmarking, user observation, lead user analysis and analogic thinking. Of these techniques, analogic thinking has the greatest theoretical support as the driver of truly innovative thought.
Source: Perkins (1997). In: Dahl, D.W., & Moreau, P. (2002)

Measures

A universal success curve shows that the odds of commercial success for substantially new products averages 1 in 300 at the idea submission stage (or at patent disclosure stage), and 1 in 125 at the small project stage (or after a patent is granted). After the detailed analysis of Stage 4, the odds of success are 1 in 9 (11%). Even when the project reaches the stage of major development, the odds of success are typically no greater than 1 in 4 (25%). At the commercial launch stage the odds of success are still only 1 in 1.7 (60%). This success rate curve has remained essentially unchanged in the last 40 years.
Source: Stevens & Burley (1997). In: Stevens, G., Burley, J., & Divine, R. (1999)

Measures of Organizational Integration, NPD Proficiency and new product success
Source: Price, 1972; Pinto & Pinto, 1991; Ruekert and Walker, 1987a, 1987b; Miller and Friesen, 1982; Souder, 1981. In: Millson, M.R. & Wilemon, D. (2006)

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is adopted at the concept level of the design process, to focus design attention on key customer demands and on competitive differentiation.
Source: Salomone (1995). In: Mousavi, A., Adl., P. Rakowski, R.T., Gunasekaran, A., & Mirnezami, N. (2001)

Tips

Academic knowledge spillovers can be defined as formal or informal movements of new science-based ideas, concepts or technical procedures from university research units to the private sector.
Source: Jaffe (1989). In: MacPherson, A. (2002)

Application of integrative tools for new product development
Source: Hauer & Clausing, 1988; Natter et al, 1001; Hauer, 1993. In: Natter, M. & Mild, A. (2003)

Consider Pre-development planning, product advantage, clear product concept
Source: Cooper & Kleinschmidt, 1987, 1993. In: Brown, S.L. & Eisenhardt K.M. (1995)

Evidence from the problem-solving literature suggests that people confronted with a creative task, search through a space of possibilities in memory, hoping to access useful information. The process is an attempt to transfer information from familiar, existing categories (base domains), and us it in the construction of their new idea (target domain).
Source: Perkins (1997). In: Dahl, D.W., & Moreau, P. (2002)

Not understanding customer needs, and not defining those needs, has been a fatal flaw identified by many new product development reserachers, particularly at the early stages of the product development process. This can manifest itself at product launch where key product attributes may be overlooked in terms of communicating benefits to end users- ultimately leading to a lack of acceptance by product consumers.
Source: Dimancescu, D. & Dwenger, K. (1996). In: Bogue, J., & Ritson, C. (2006)

Project level success factors can be complemented by a set of higher order or strategic program-level factors, which are perhaps preconditions for sustained innovation. These preconditions are: (1) top management’s commitment to and visible support for innovation; (2) long-term strategy in which innovation plays a key role; (3) long-term commitment to major projects based on considerations of future market penetration and growth rather than short-term ROI criteria; (4) corporate flexibility and responsiveness to change; (5) top management acceptance of risk and an associated need for sensible termination criteria; and, (6) creation of an innovation-accepting, entrepreneurship-accommodating culture.
Source: Rothwell (1994). In: Reid, M. (2001)

Top managers should place a strong emphasis on obtaining market information to ensure adequate generation of market intelligence about competitors and customers.
Source: Jaworski & Kohli (1993). In: Li, T. & Calantone, R. J. (1998)