Step 1.5

Consider path from planned project output (Conceptual Discovery; Prototype Invention; or Product Innovation) to target market and beneficiary stakeholders. Profile potential Co-Development partners for downstream Stages/Gates. Ask and answer another key question: How will target users find and access the product?

Primary findings

Secondary findings

Primary findings

Barriers

Service providers and product developers think of AT market as persons in need of assistance not potential customers.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Knowledge stakeholders typically have narrow decision-making time lines and specific informational needs. They usually are unwilling or unable to wait extended periods for applicable research results. Researchers need to take this into consideration as they plan, execute and mobilize their research projects.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
(View full citation)

Carriers

Patients contribute the benefits of first-hand experience, practical knowledge, and individual feelings to the innovation process.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Public agencies are well positioned to organize roles to facilitate integrated design. Groups can delineate activities along the lines of “front office” and “back office”.  
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Knowledge sharing is correlated with better employee performance and retention.
Survey findings
(View full citation)

Models

(2) Technological innovation systems (TIS) incorporate the actors and rules influencing the speed and direction of change in a specific technological area. The TIS approach emphasizes the interplay of all relevant actors.
Case study findings
(View full citation)

The outcome of this exercise is that the researchers were then able to create the ‘Interactions Model’ which maps the ‘current’ situation of interactions or issues pertinent to the Telco–Distributor and Comtic–Supplier interface. Findings from the ‘Interactions Model’ emphasize the sensitivity of the interface and the key role which the partners (distributors and suppliers) have come to play in an extended enterprise.
The data has been collected by the researcher from within the company from a wide variety of sources ranging from NPD documentation, archival records and interviews with various people working on the R&D process.
(View full citation)

Methods

Complex technologies require a collaborative approach for successful innovation and diffusion. Minimizing the level of innovation system uncertainty should be a focus of collaboration to identify needs, demonstrate the value of technologies, and work together to design and deliver post-purchase support. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

A plan for getting to market and knowing who approves purchases of such new products is critical early in the project and again downstream. This avoids dead time between then the product is available to order and when the customers start buying it. Understand how customers make purchasing decisions, and know any required demonstration periods and projected conversion rates.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

For basic research, look at the nature of scientific research and development activity in private industry that is concerned with time to market. Industry research is concerned with time frames. Outputs from basic science may sit on a shelf because they are not usable in a product form. An important consideration is: Who is making the investment to take scientific results and turning them into devices or services?
Summary of expert panel meeting to guide future KT work sponsored by a Federal agency.
(View full citation)

Identify the purchase decision-maker within the customer stakeholder group — A full understanding of the path to market requires input from all relevant stakeholders up front, followed by close coordination among cross-functional team members downstream.
Conclusions drawn from case studies and experience.
(View full citation)

Intensive use of market research enables an organization to set specific, immediate sales targets to measure new product success.
Survey data.
(View full citation)

Organizations should have coherent administrative procedures, including information-gathering systems reviewing new opportunities; flexible capital budgets that extend beyond two years; up-to-date capital budgeting manuals; full time capital budgeting staff; regular reviews of hurdle rates; and a capital appropriation committee to vet projects.
Survey with significant findings
(View full citation)

Six key components are highly correlated with new product development success. 1) The role of the new product development project must be defined in terms of their contribution to achieving organizational goals. 2) Strategic arenas (markets, product areas, industry sectors or technologies) should be clearly identified and defined. 3) Longer term goals for new products should be defined early on. 4) The organization should have a long-term view of its new product development efforts. 5) Earmarking buckets of resources (funds or person days) targeted at different project types helps to ensure strategic alignment of new product development with organizational goals. 6) Product/technology road maps should be in place to help management make sure that the capabilities are in place to achieve their objective when needed.
Survey of 105 U.S. companies
(View full citation)

Sound evaluation methods are needed for new product success, including strategic screenings of new product proposals; utilization of market research; and primary and secondary valuation using a variety of methods such as net present value or Payback.
Survey with significant findings.
(View full citation)

When seeking partners consider- in order- technological alignment (technical ability, technical resource and market knowledge complementarity, and overlapping knowledge bases); strategic alignment (motivation correspondence and goal correspondence); and relational alignment (compatible cultures, propensity to change, and long-term orientation).
Narrative analysis of case studies and literature review.
(View full citation)

Tips

Think of market as potential customers, not persons in need of assistance. 
Case study findings
(View full citation)

Compatibility standards differ from customer standards. A decision to give attention to one form of standards over another requires a review of the organization, competition, and level of innovation present in the product.
Survey of 234 manufacturers.
(View full citation)

Firms with a concentrated structure (new product activities at one location and manufacturing at another) are at risk of losing market share to competitors for a longer period of time than firms with a distributed structure (new product development and manufacturing housed together at multiple locations). Ie) A distributed firm will retain market share advantages related to being first-to-market so long as competition does not enter the market for 10 days. A concentrated structure firm must not have competition for 30 days or it will lose market share.
Survey. High statistical significance.
(View full citation)

Higher levels of sophistication in capital budgeting are associated with new product development success.
Survey with significant findings.
(View full citation)

If funding organizations are going to require explicit identification of knowledge translation activities in research proposals, the funding organizations should ensure that researchers fully understand the purpose and processes associated with knowledge translation. Funding organizations should also strongly encourage researchers to consider the addition of relevant knowledge translation thinking and activities early in the research planning stages. It is important that researchers demonstrate awareness of the value and benefits of incorporating knowledge translation in their projects, and not just appear to be complying with funder requirements by ‘ticking-off-boxes.’
Knowledge translation guidance for researchers.
(View full citation)

Incremental technological developments, as opposed to breakthrough developments, reduces development time but does not reduce the goal/failure rate.
Meta analysis of 9 studies
(View full citation)

Many researchers expect a sequential and orderly progression in their research, from hypothesis to design, then application and results. Translation and application of knowledge often requires deviations that are a consequence of the unique attributes of the organizational processes associated with a target practice.
Case study.
(View full citation)

Matching new product development tasks to employee interests and strengths helps to ensure that those tasks will be appropriately handled. Employees who possess traits associated with inventors thrive in R&D environments; those who act as champions do well during the opportunity recognition phase; those who are project implementers are best placed in project execution roles; while serial innovators do well throughout the entire process.
Survey data.
(View full citation)

One of the policies or practices a university should consider when embarking on the establishment of a spin off company with industry to effect knowledge/technology transfer is the strict definition of the boundaries of the spin off, its funding sources, and participants.
Literature review.
(View full citation)

Research networks (and projects) should ensure that they are adequately resourced for broad dissemination of research results.
Lessons from a health research network evaluation.
(View full citation)

Responsibility for new product development should be assigned to cross-functional teams.
Survey of 165 Canadian manufacturing firms.
(View full citation)

Senior management should champion product leadership as an organizational goal such that customer knowledge development activities gain meaning, and motivate staff to pursue them.
Survey of 165 Canadian manufacturing firms.
(View full citation)

Utilization of industrial extension service providers to facilitate product improvement can result in faster rates of sales growth and increased job retention.
Survey data.
(View full citation)

Secondary findings

Barriers

Despite an abundance of academic and scientific expertise, biotechnology firms suffer from a lack of management skill and knowledge. This lack of skills and knowledge impacts on the firm’s ability to manage NPD as well as to secure the funding required for sustained performance.
Source: Ernst_&_Young (2001), Department of Industry Science and Resources and Ernst & Young (1999). In: Frahm, J., Ireland, D.C., & Hine, D. (2007)

Differences in organizational cultures, mindsets, expectations, and behavior. Knowledge spillover may result when dealing with proprietary information in collaborations.
Source: Hanson & Lackman, 1998; Tse, Francis & Walls, 1994; Yan, Luo, & Child, 2000. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Financial evaluation dilemma- Flimsy data may result in the elimination of potentially successful projects. However, failure to evaluate at an early stage (using any and all available data) results in new product development failure.
Source: Hayes & Abernathy, 1980; Hayes & Garvin, 1982; Pearson, 1986. In: Neale, C.W. (1994)

Models

Organizations that have a clear picture of their current and future business and the ways to get there are more likely to succeed.
Source: Cooper, 1990. In: Shum, P., & Lin, G. (2007)

Strategic approach to new product development contributes most to new product success.
Source: Ernst, 2002. In: Beverland, M.B., Ewing, M.T. & Jekanyika Matanda, M. (2006)

Methods

One knowledge transfer planning guide offers five questions researchers should consider when undertaking knowledge dissemination: (1) What is the message? (2) Who is the audience? (3) Who is the messenger? (4) What is the transfer method? (5) What is the expected outcome?
Source: Reardon (2006). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Table 1 Studies on Collaborative NPD lists 12 studies related to co development and collaboration in new product development.
Source: See table 1. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Tips

One question researchers should consider when undertaking knowledge dissemination is: What is the expected outcome? The dissemination plan should consider what impact the proposed activities will achieve before it is implemented. This may enhance the plan’s success and facilitate evaluation of the plan. Reardon et al. identified three possible impacts: indirect use or changes in knowledge awareness or attitude, direct use or changes in behaviors, and tactical use or the use of research to validate or defend a decision that has already been taken for other reason.
Source: Reardon (2006). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

One question researchers should consider when undertaking knowledge dissemination is: What is the message? Messages should include credible facts and data, findings, and conclusions, and/or a body of evidence that can be expressed as an actionable idea.
Source: Reardon (2006). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

One question researchers should consider when undertaking knowledge dissemination is: What is the transfer method? Transfer methods need to be carefully considered in light of a number of factors, including the nature and size of the audience and available resources to devote to dissemination. Regardless of the audience, active engagement between researchers and those who can use the knowledge and packaging the messages for the particular audience will likely enhance uptake.
Source: Reardon (2006). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

One question researchers should consider when undertaking knowledge dissemination is: Who is the audience? Messages should be developed with a particular audience in mind that is likely in a position to use the research-based information for decision-making purposes. Understanding audiences and their information needs is enhanced through ongoing relationships between the decision makers in question and those who are producing the research.
Source: Reardon (2006). In: Gagnon, M.L. (2011)

Significant innovations are likely to emerge from a combination of complimentary skills
Source: Glaister, 1996. In: Emden, Z., Calantone, R.J. & Droge, C. (2006)

Vertical integration is positively related to increased new product development. It can offer a firm access to complementary assets and resources that give them the ability to tailor products for customer needs.
Source: Collier et al, 1984; Buzzell & Gale, 1987. In: Sahay, A. & Riley, D. (2003)